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DShow中实现抓图的几种方法

来源:互联网  宽屏版  评论
2008-06-01 02:12:03

1.加入Sample Grabber Filter

当我们加入Sample Grabber Filter的时候,我们可以直接调用其接口(interface)ISampleGrabber。该接口可以获取经过该Filter的单独的Media Samples。详情请参见DXSDK。

1.1 派生出自己的Sample Grabber

从ISampleGrabberCB中派生出自己的类,然后实现其虚函数,详情请参见SDK中的示例程序(DXSDK ROOT\Samples\C++\DirectShow\Editing\GrabBitmaps)。

1.2 直接调用Sample Grabber Filter的接口

假如我们在播放的过程中动态的加入Filter的话,操作和效率都不乐观。所以我采用下面的方法:

该方法传递的是时间,不是在播放的时候动态加入Filter然后截图,而是另外打开源文件进行操作。

A)申明以下接口:

#001 IGraphBuilder *pGraph = NULL; //for graph builder

#002 IMediaControl *pControl = NULL; //media control

#003 IMediaSeeking *pSeeking = NULL; //media seeking

#004 IMediaEventEx *pEvent = NULL; //media envent

#005 IBaseFilter *pNullFilter =NULL;//for holding the Sample grabber Filter

B)初始化接口:

#001 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_FilterGraph, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC,

#002 IID_IGraphBuilder, (void **)&pGraph));

#003

#004 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_NullRenderer, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC,

#005 IID_IBaseFilter, (void **)&pNullFilter));

#006 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaControl,(void **)&pControl));

#007 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaSeeking, (void **)&pSeeking));

#008 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaEvent, (void **)&pEvent));

C)创建Sample Grabber

#001 // Create the Sample Grabber.

#002 IBaseFilter *pGrabberF = NULL;

#003 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_SampleGrabber,NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,

#004 IID_IBaseFilter, (void**)&pGrabberF));

#005

#006 JIF(pGraph->AddFilter(pGrabberF, L"Sample Grabber"));

#007 JIF(pGraph->AddFilter(pNullFilter, L"Null Render Filter"));

#008

#009 ISampleGrabber *pGrabber;

#010 JIF(pGrabberF->QueryInterface(IID_ISampleGrabber, (void**)&pGrabber));

设置Sample Grabber的媒体格式:调用SetMediaType,该函数接受一个AM_MEDIA_TYPE的结构,主要是设置该结构中的majortype,和suBType域。

D)添加Source Filter:

#001 IBaseFilter *pSrc;

#002 JIF(pGraph->AddSourceFilter(T2W(m_szFile), L"Source", &pSrc));

E)连接Grabber 和 NullRender两个Filter:

#001 IPin *pOutPin;

#002 hr = GetPin(pGrabberF, PINDIR_OUTPUT, &pOutPin);

#003

#004 IPin *pInPin;

#005 hr = GetPin(pNullFilter, PINDIR_INPUT, &pInPin);

#006

#007 pGraph->Connect(pOutPin, pInPin);

F)取得当前所连接媒体的类型

#001 AM_MEDIA_TYPE mt;

#002 hr = pGrabber->GetConnectedMediaType(&mt);

#003 // Examine the format block.

#004 VIDEOINFOHEADER *pVih;

#005 if ((mt.formattype == FORMAT_VideoInfo) &&

#006 (mt.cbFormat >= sizeof(VIDEOINFOHEADER)) &&

#007 (mt.pbFormat != NULL) )

#008 {

#009 pVih = (VIDEOINFOHEADER*)mt.pbFormat;

#010 }

#011 else

#012 {

#013 // Wrong format. Free the format block and return an error.

#014 FreeMediaType(mt);

#015 return VFW_E_INVALIDMEDIATYPE;

#016 }

#017

#018 // Do buffer the samples as they pass through

#019 //

#020 hr = pGrabber->SetBufferSamples(TRUE);

#021

#022 // Only grab one at a time, stop stream after

#023 // grabbing one sample

#024 //

#025 hr = pGrabber->SetOneShot( TRUE );

G)Seeking文件,使其到达要截图的时间帧

#001 pSeeking->SetPositions(pCurrentPos,

#002 AM_SEEKING_AbsolutePositioning,

#003 NULL, AM_SEEKING_NoPositioning );

#004

#005 pControl->Run();

#006

#007 long EvCode = 0;

#008

#009 hr = pEvent->WaitForCompletion( INFINITE, &EvCode );

H)取得当前的buffer数据

#001 // Find the required buffer size.

#002 long cbBuffer = 0;

#003 hr = pGrabber->GetCurrentBuffer(&cbBuffer, NULL);

#004 LONGLONG currentPos;

#005 pSeeking->GetCurrentPosition(&currentPos);

#006 BYTE *pBuffer = new BYTE[cbBuffer];

#007 if (!pBuffer)

#008 {

#009 // Out of memory. Return an error code.

#010 Msg("Out of Memory");

#011 }

#012 hr = pGrabber->GetCurrentBuffer(&cbBuffer, (long*)pBuffer);

I)写入文件

#001 // Create a file to hold the bitmap

#002 HANDLE hf = CreateFile(szFilename, GENERIC_WRITE, FILE_SHARE_READ,

#003 NULL, CREATE_ALWAYS, NULL, NULL );

#004

#005 if( hf == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE )

#006 {

#007 // Failed to create file

#008 return 0;

#009 }

#010

#011 // Write out the file header

#012 //

#013 BITMAPFILEHEADER bfh;

#014 memset( &bfh, 0, sizeof( bfh ) );

#015 bfh.bfType = 'MB';

#016 bfh.bfSize = sizeof( bfh ) + cbBuffer + sizeof( BITMAPINFOHEADER );

#017 bfh.bfOffBits = sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER)+sizeof( BITMAPFILEHEADER );

#018

#019 DWord Written = 0;

#020 WriteFile( hf, &bfh, sizeof( bfh ), &Written, NULL );

#021

#022 // Write the bitmap format

#023 //

#024 BITMAPINFOHEADER bih;

#025 memset( &bih, 0, sizeof( bih ) );

#026 bih.biSize = sizeof( bih );

#027 bih.biWidth = pVih->bmiHeader.biWidth;

#028 bih.biHeight = pVih->bmiHeader.biHeight;

#029 bih.biPlanes = pVih->bmiHeader.biPlanes;

#030 bih.biBitCount = pVih->bmiHeader.biBitCount;

#031

#032 Written = 0;

#033

#034 WriteFile( hf, &bih, sizeof( bih ), &Written, NULL );

#035

#036 // Write the bitmap bits

#037 //

#038 Written = 0;

#039 WriteFile( hf, pBuffer, cbBuffer, &Written, NULL );

#040 FreeMediaType(mt);

#041 CloseHandle(hf);

J)释放资源

#001 pControl->Stop();

#002 SAFE_RELEASE(pControl);

#003 SAFE_RELEASE(pSeeking);

#004 SAFE_RELEASE(pEvent);

#005 SAFE_RELEASE(pSrc);

#006 SAFE_RELEASE(pNullFilter);

#007 SAFE_RELEASE(pGrabber);

#008 SAFE_RELEASE(pGrabberF);

#009 SAFE_RELEASE(pGraph);

K)其实我们可以不用NullRender,而是用IVideoWindow接口来实现。假如是那样的话,首先申明IVideoWindow *pVideo = NULL;将pVideo加入到Filter Graph中

#001 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IVideoWindow,(void**)&pVideo));

#002 hr = pGraph->Render(pOutPin);

#003 if (pVideo)

#004 {

#005 hr = pVideo->put_AutoShow(OAFALSE);

#006 }

通过IBasicVideo::GetCurrentImage接口

对于该接口,Video Renderer和Video Mixing Renderer(VMR)有不同的实现。

A)Video Renderer

假如该Renderer使用了DDraw加速的话,该调用会失败。在调用该接口的时候,必须首先暂停Renderer(可以通过IMediaControl::Pause()暂停,假如不能确信该操作是否成功,应该调用IMediaControl::GetState()判定状态)。

B)Video Mixing Renderer

对于VMR,该方法都会成功(不管是否运用了DDraw加速,也不管是否是暂停状态),此时对于它所有的状态(running, stopped, or paused)都适用。

函数Grabber代码如下(调用该函数的时候应该先将媒体文件暂停,原因上面已经说了):

#001 bool Grabber(IBasicVideo mBasicVideo, TCHAR *szFilename)

#002 {

#003 if (mBasicVideo)

#004 {

#005 long bitmapSize = 0;

#006 if(SUCCEEDED(mBasicVideo->GetCurrentImage(&bitmapSize, 0)))

#007 {

#008 //if语句里面的操作时取得buffer的size。

#009 //当我们在布确定image buffer的大小的情况下,我们给

#010 //GetCurrentImage的第二个参数传递0或者NULL,取得buffer的

#011 //大小供以后使用。

#012 bool pass = false;

#013 unsigned char * buffer = new unsigned char[bitmapSize];

#014 if(SUCCEEDED(mBasicVideo->GetCurrentImage(&bitmapSize,(long*)buffer)))

#015 {

#016 //此时已经用到刚才所取得的大小(分配空间)

#017 BITMAPFILEHEADER hdr; //Bitmap的头信息

#018 LPBITMAPINFOHEADER lpbi; // Bitmap的文件信息(包括数据)

#019

#020 lpbi = (LPBITMAPINFOHEADER)buffer;

#021

#022 int nColors = 1 << lpbi->biBitCount;

#023 if (nColors > 256)

#024 nColors = 0;

#025

#026 hdr.bfType = ((WORD) ('M' << 8) 'B'); //always is "BM"

#027 hdr.bfSize = bitmapSize + sizeof( hdr );

#028 hdr.bfReserved1 = 0;

#029 hdr.bfReserved2 = 0;

#030 hdr.bfOffBits = (DWORD) (sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER) + lpbi->biSize

#031 CFile bitmapFile(outFile, CFile::modeReadWrite CFile::modeCreate CFile::typeBinary);

#032 bitmapFile.Write(&hdr, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER));

#033 bitmapFile.Write(buffer, bitmapSize);

#034 bitmapFile.Close();

#035 pass = true;

#036 }

#037 delete [] buffer; //数据用过之后记得要释放空间

#038 return true;

#039 }

#040 }

#041

#042 return false;

#043 }

IMediaDet接口

IMediaDet接口可以取得媒体文件的信息。SDK里面的示例代码(没有写入文件):

#001 long size;

#002 //取得图像帧的大小,给GetBitmapBits的第三个参数传递0 or NULL

#003 hr = pDet->GetBitmapBits(0, &size, 0, width, height);

#004 if(SUCCEEDED(hr))

#005 {

#006 char *pBuffer = new char[size];

#007 if(!pBuffer)

#008 {

#009 return E_OUTOFMEMORY;

#010 }

#011

#012 try

#013 {

#014 hr = pDet->GetbitmapsBits(0, 0, pBuffer, width, height);

#015 }

#016 catch(...)

#017 {

#018 delete [] pBuffer;

#019 throw;

#020 }

#021

#022 if(SUCCEEDED(hr))

#023 {

#024 BITMAPINFOHEADER *bmih = (BITMAPINFOHEADER*)pBuffer;

#025 HDC hdcDest = GetDC(0);

#026

#027 //Find the address of the start of the image data

#028 void *pData = pBuffer + sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER);

#029

#030 //Note: In general a BITMAPINFOHEADER can include extra color

#031 //information at the end, so calculating the offset to the image

#032 //data i snot generally correct. However, the IMediaDet interface

#033 //always returns an RGB-24 image with no extra color information

#034

#035 BITMAPINFO bmi;

#036 ZeroMemory(&bmi, sizeof(BITMAPINFO));

#037 CopyMemory(&(bmi.bmiHeader), bmih, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER));

#038 HBITMAP hBitmap = CreateDIBitmap(hdcDect, bmih, CBM_INIT,

#039 pData, &bmi, DIB_RGB_COLORS);

#040 }

#041

#042 delete [] pBuffer;

#043 }

该方法并没有写入bitmap,具体的写入过程可以参加上面的几种方法。

1.加入Sample Grabber Filter   当我们加入Sample Grabber Filter的时候,我们可以直接调用其接口(interface)ISampleGrabber。该接口可以获取经过该Filter的单独的Media Samples。详情请参见DXSDK。   1.1 派生出自己的Sample Grabber   从ISampleGrabberCB中派生出自己的类,然后实现其虚函数,详情请参见SDK中的示例程序(DXSDK ROOT\Samples\C++\DirectShow\Editing\GrabBitmaps)。   1.2 直接调用Sample Grabber Filter的接口   假如我们在播放的过程中动态的加入Filter的话,操作和效率都不乐观。所以我采用下面的方法:   该方法传递的是时间,不是在播放的时候动态加入Filter然后截图,而是另外打开源文件进行操作。   A)申明以下接口: #001 IGraphBuilder *pGraph = NULL; //for graph builder #002 IMediaControl *pControl = NULL; //media control #003 IMediaSeeking *pSeeking = NULL; //media seeking #004 IMediaEventEx *pEvent = NULL; //media envent #005 IBaseFilter *pNullFilter =NULL;//for holding the Sample grabber Filter   B)初始化接口: #001 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_FilterGraph, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC, #002 IID_IGraphBuilder, (void **)&pGraph)); #003 #004 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_NullRenderer, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC, #005 IID_IBaseFilter, (void **)&pNullFilter)); #006 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaControl,(void **)&pControl)); #007 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaSeeking, (void **)&pSeeking)); #008 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaEvent, (void **)&pEvent));   C)创建Sample Grabber #001 // Create the Sample Grabber. #002 IBaseFilter *pGrabberF = NULL; #003 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_SampleGrabber,NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER, #004 IID_IBaseFilter, (void**)&pGrabberF)); #005 #006 JIF(pGraph->AddFilter(pGrabberF, L"Sample Grabber")); #007 JIF(pGraph->AddFilter(pNullFilter, L"Null Render Filter")); #008 #009 ISampleGrabber *pGrabber; #010 JIF(pGrabberF->QueryInterface(IID_ISampleGrabber, (void**)&pGrabber));   设置Sample Grabber的媒体格式:调用SetMediaType,该函数接受一个AM_MEDIA_TYPE的结构,主要是设置该结构中的majortype,和suBType域。   D)添加Source Filter: #001 IBaseFilter *pSrc; #002 JIF(pGraph->AddSourceFilter(T2W(m_szFile), L"Source", &pSrc));   E)连接Grabber 和 NullRender两个Filter: #001 IPin *pOutPin; #002 hr = GetPin(pGrabberF, PINDIR_OUTPUT, &pOutPin); #003 #004 IPin *pInPin; #005 hr = GetPin(pNullFilter, PINDIR_INPUT, &pInPin); #006 #007 pGraph->Connect(pOutPin, pInPin);   F)取得当前所连接媒体的类型 #001 AM_MEDIA_TYPE mt; #002 hr = pGrabber->GetConnectedMediaType(&mt); #003 // Examine the format block. #004 VIDEOINFOHEADER *pVih; #005 if ((mt.formattype == FORMAT_VideoInfo) && #006 (mt.cbFormat >= sizeof(VIDEOINFOHEADER)) && #007 (mt.pbFormat != NULL) ) #008 { #009 pVih = (VIDEOINFOHEADER*)mt.pbFormat; #010 } #011 else #012 { #013 // Wrong format. Free the format block and return an error. #014 FreeMediaType(mt); #015 return VFW_E_INVALIDMEDIATYPE; #016 } #017 #018 // Do buffer the samples as they pass through #019 // #020 hr = pGrabber->SetBufferSamples(TRUE); #021 #022 // Only grab one at a time, stop stream after #023 // grabbing one sample #024 // #025 hr = pGrabber->SetOneShot( TRUE );   G)Seeking文件,使其到达要截图的时间帧 #001 pSeeking->SetPositions(pCurrentPos, #002 AM_SEEKING_AbsolutePositioning, #003 NULL, AM_SEEKING_NoPositioning ); #004 #005 pControl->Run(); #006 #007 long EvCode = 0; #008 #009 hr = pEvent->WaitForCompletion( INFINITE, &EvCode );   H)取得当前的buffer数据 #001 // Find the required buffer size. #002 long cbBuffer = 0; #003 hr = pGrabber->GetCurrentBuffer(&cbBuffer, NULL); #004 LONGLONG currentPos; #005 pSeeking->GetCurrentPosition(&currentPos); #006 BYTE *pBuffer = new BYTE[cbBuffer]; #007 if (!pBuffer) #008 { #009 // Out of memory. Return an error code. #010 Msg("Out of Memory"); #011 } #012 hr = pGrabber->GetCurrentBuffer(&cbBuffer, (long*)pBuffer);   I)写入文件 #001 // Create a file to hold the bitmap #002 HANDLE hf = CreateFile(szFilename, GENERIC_WRITE, FILE_SHARE_READ, #003 NULL, CREATE_ALWAYS, NULL, NULL ); #004 #005 if( hf == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE ) #006 { #007 // Failed to create file #008 return 0; #009 } #010 #011 // Write out the file header #012 // #013 BITMAPFILEHEADER bfh; #014 memset( &bfh, 0, sizeof( bfh ) ); #015 bfh.bfType = 'MB'; #016 bfh.bfSize = sizeof( bfh ) + cbBuffer + sizeof( BITMAPINFOHEADER ); #017 bfh.bfOffBits = sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER)+sizeof( BITMAPFILEHEADER ); #018 #019 DWord Written = 0; #020 WriteFile( hf, &bfh, sizeof( bfh ), &Written, NULL ); #021 #022 // Write the bitmap format #023 // #024 BITMAPINFOHEADER bih; #025 memset( &bih, 0, sizeof( bih ) ); #026 bih.biSize = sizeof( bih ); #027 bih.biWidth = pVih->bmiHeader.biWidth; #028 bih.biHeight = pVih->bmiHeader.biHeight; #029 bih.biPlanes = pVih->bmiHeader.biPlanes; #030 bih.biBitCount = pVih->bmiHeader.biBitCount; #031 #032 Written = 0; #033 #034 WriteFile( hf, &bih, sizeof( bih ), &Written, NULL ); #035 #036 // Write the bitmap bits #037 // #038 Written = 0; #039 WriteFile( hf, pBuffer, cbBuffer, &Written, NULL ); #040 FreeMediaType(mt); #041 CloseHandle(hf);   J)释放资源 #001 pControl->Stop(); #002 SAFE_RELEASE(pControl); #003 SAFE_RELEASE(pSeeking); #004 SAFE_RELEASE(pEvent); #005 SAFE_RELEASE(pSrc); #006 SAFE_RELEASE(pNullFilter); #007 SAFE_RELEASE(pGrabber); #008 SAFE_RELEASE(pGrabberF); #009 SAFE_RELEASE(pGraph);   K)其实我们可以不用NullRender,而是用IVideoWindow接口来实现。假如是那样的话,首先申明IVideoWindow *pVideo = NULL;将pVideo加入到Filter Graph中 #001 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IVideoWindow,(void**)&pVideo)); #002 hr = pGraph->Render(pOutPin); #003 if (pVideo) #004 { #005 hr = pVideo->put_AutoShow(OAFALSE); #006 }   通过IBasicVideo::GetCurrentImage接口   对于该接口,Video Renderer和Video Mixing Renderer(VMR)有不同的实现。   A)Video Renderer   假如该Renderer使用了DDraw加速的话,该调用会失败。在调用该接口的时候,必须首先暂停Renderer(可以通过IMediaControl::Pause()暂停,假如不能确信该操作是否成功,应该调用IMediaControl::GetState()判定状态)。   B)Video Mixing Renderer   对于VMR,该方法都会成功(不管是否运用了DDraw加速,也不管是否是暂停状态),此时对于它所有的状态(running, stopped, or paused)都适用。   函数Grabber代码如下(调用该函数的时候应该先将媒体文件暂停,原因上面已经说了): #001 bool Grabber(IBasicVideo mBasicVideo, TCHAR *szFilename) #002 { #003 if (mBasicVideo) #004 { #005 long bitmapSize = 0; #006 if(SUCCEEDED(mBasicVideo->GetCurrentImage(&bitmapSize, 0))) #007 { #008 //if语句里面的操作时取得buffer的size。 #009 //当我们在布确定image buffer的大小的情况下,我们给 #010 //GetCurrentImage的第二个参数传递0或者NULL,取得buffer的 #011 //大小供以后使用。 #012 bool pass = false; #013 unsigned char * buffer = new unsigned char[bitmapSize]; #014 if(SUCCEEDED(mBasicVideo->GetCurrentImage(&bitmapSize,(long*)buffer))) #015 { #016 //此时已经用到刚才所取得的大小(分配空间) #017 BITMAPFILEHEADER hdr; //Bitmap的头信息 #018 LPBITMAPINFOHEADER lpbi; // Bitmap的文件信息(包括数据) #019 #020 lpbi = (LPBITMAPINFOHEADER)buffer; #021 #022 int nColors = 1 << lpbi->biBitCount; #023 if (nColors > 256) #024 nColors = 0; #025 #026 hdr.bfType = ((WORD) ('M' << 8) 'B'); //always is "BM" #027 hdr.bfSize = bitmapSize + sizeof( hdr ); #028 hdr.bfReserved1 = 0; #029 hdr.bfReserved2 = 0; #030 hdr.bfOffBits = (DWORD) (sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER) + lpbi->biSize #031 CFile bitmapFile(outFile, CFile::modeReadWrite CFile::modeCreate CFile::typeBinary); #032 bitmapFile.Write(&hdr, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER)); #033 bitmapFile.Write(buffer, bitmapSize); #034 bitmapFile.Close(); #035 pass = true; #036 } #037 delete [] buffer; //数据用过之后记得要释放空间 #038 return true; #039 } #040 } #041 #042 return false; #043 }   IMediaDet接口   IMediaDet接口可以取得媒体文件的信息。SDK里面的示例代码(没有写入文件): #001 long size; #002 //取得图像帧的大小,给GetBitmapBits的第三个参数传递0 or NULL #003 hr = pDet->GetBitmapBits(0, &size, 0, width, height); #004 if(SUCCEEDED(hr)) #005 { #006 char *pBuffer = new char[size]; #007 if(!pBuffer) #008 { #009 return E_OUTOFMEMORY; #010 } #011 #012 try #013 { #014 hr = pDet->GetbitmapsBits(0, 0, pBuffer, width, height); #015 } #016 catch(...) #017 { #018 delete [] pBuffer; #019 throw; #020 } #021 #022 if(SUCCEEDED(hr)) #023 { #024 BITMAPINFOHEADER *bmih = (BITMAPINFOHEADER*)pBuffer; #025 HDC hdcDest = GetDC(0); #026 #027 //Find the address of the start of the image data #028 void *pData = pBuffer + sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER); #029 #030 //Note: In general a BITMAPINFOHEADER can include extra color #031 //information at the end, so calculating the offset to the image #032 //data i snot generally correct. However, the IMediaDet interface #033 //always returns an RGB-24 image with no extra color information #034 #035 BITMAPINFO bmi; #036 ZeroMemory(&bmi, sizeof(BITMAPINFO)); #037 CopyMemory(&(bmi.bmiHeader), bmih, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER)); #038 HBITMAP hBitmap = CreateDIBitmap(hdcDect, bmih, CBM_INIT, #039 pData, &bmi, DIB_RGB_COLORS); #040 } #041 #042 delete [] pBuffer; #043 }   该方法并没有写入bitmap,具体的写入过程可以参加上面的几种方法。
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