| 订阅 | 在线投稿
分享
 
 
 

RFC1597 - Address Allocation for Private Internets

来源:互联网网民  宽屏版  评论
2008-05-31 18:56:37

Network Working Group Y. Rekhter

Request for Comments: 1597 T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp.

Category: Informational B. Moskowitz

Chrysler Corp.

D. Karrenberg

RIPE NCC

G. de Groot

RIPE NCC

March 1994

Address Allocation for Private Internets

Status of this Memo

This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo

does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of

this memo is unlimited.

1. IntrodUCtion

This RFCdescribes methods to preserve IP address space by not

allocating globally unique IP addresses to hosts private to an

enterprise while still permitting full network layer connectivity

between all hosts inside an enterprise as well as between all public

hosts of different enterprises. The authors hope, that using these

methods, significant savings can be made on allocating IP address

space.

For the purposes of this memo, an enterprise is an entity

autonomously operating a network using TCP/IP and in particular

determining the addressing plan and address assignments within that

network.

2. Motivation

With the proliferation of TCP/IP technology worldwide, including

outside the Internet itself, an increasing number of non-connected

enterprises use this technology and its addressing capabilities for

sole intra-enterprise communications, without any intention to ever

directly connect to other enterprises or the Internet itself.

The current practice is to assign globally unique addresses to all

hosts that use TCP/IP. There is a growing concern that the finite IP

address space might become exhausted. Therefore, the guidelines for

assigning IP address space have been tightened in recent years [1].

These rules are often more conservative than enterprises would like,

in order to implement and operate their networks.

Hosts within enterprises that use IP can be partitioned into three

categories:

- hosts that do not require Access to hosts in other enterprises

or the Internet at large;

- hosts that need access to a limited set of outside services

(e.g., E-mail, FTP, netnews, remote login) which can be handled

by application layer gateways;

- hosts that need network layer access outside the enterprise

(provided via IP connectivity);

- hosts within the first category may use IP addresses that are

unambiguous within an enterprise, but may be ambiguous between

enterprises.

For many hosts in the second category an unrestricted external access

(provided via IP connectivity) may be unnecessary and even

undesirable for privacy/security reasons. Just like hosts within the

first category, such hosts may use IP addresses that are unambiguous

within an enterprise, but may be ambiguous between enterprises.

Only hosts in the last category require IP addresses that are

globally unambiguous.

Many applications require connectivity only within one enterprise and

do not even need external connectivity for the majority of internal

hosts. In larger enterprises it is often easy to identify a

substantial number of hosts using TCP/IP that do not need network

layer connectivity outside the enterprise.

Some examples, where external connectivity might not be required,

are:

- A large airport which has its arrival/departure displays

individually addressable via TCP/IP. It is very unlikely that

these displays need to be directly accessible from other

networks.

- Large organisations like banks and retail chains are switching

to TCP/IP for their internal communication. Large numbers of

local workstations like cash registers, money machines, and

equipment at clerical positions rarely need to have such

connectivity.

- For security reasons, many enterprises use application layer

gateways (e.g., firewalls) to connect their internal network to

the Internet. The internal network usually does not have direct

access to the Internet, thus only one or more firewall hosts are

visible from the Internet. In this case, the internal network

can use non-unique IP numbers.

- If two enterprises communicate over their own private link,

usually only a very limited set of hosts is mutually reachable

from the other enterprise over this link. Only those hosts need

globally unique IP numbers.

- Interfaces of routers on an internal network usually do not

need to be directly accessible from outside the enterprise.

3. Private Address Space

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the

following three blocks of the IP address space for private networks:

10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255

172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255

192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

We will refer to the first block as "24-bit block", the second as

"20-bit block, and to the third as "16-bit" block. Note that the

first block is nothing but a single class A network number, while the

second block is a set of 16 contiguous class B network numbers, and

third block is a set of 255 contiguous class C network numbers.

An enterprise that decides to use IP addresses out of the address

space defined in this document can do so without any coordination

with IANA or an Internet registry. The address space can thus be

used by many enterprises. Addresses within this private address

space will only be unique within the enterprise.

As before, any enterprise that needs globally unique address space is

required to oBTain such addresses from an Internet registry. An

enterprise that requests IP addresses for its external connectivity

will never be assigned addresses from the blocks defined above.

In order to use private address space, an enterprise needs to

determine which hosts do not need to have network layer connectivity

outside the enterprise in the foreseeable future. Such hosts will be

called private hosts, and will use the private address space defined

above. Private hosts can communicate with all other hosts inside the

enterprise, both public and private. However, they cannot have IP

connectivity to any external host. While not having external network

layer connectivity private hosts can still have access to external

services via application layer relays.

All other hosts will be called public and will use globally unique

address space assigned by an Internet Registry. Public hosts can

communicate with other hosts inside the enterprise both public and

private and can have IP connectivity to external public hosts.

Public hosts do not have connectivity to private hosts of other

enterprises.

Moving a host from private to public or vice versa involves a change

of IP address.

Because private addresses have no global meaning, routing information

about private networks shall not be propagated on inter-enterprise

links, and packets with private source or destination addresses

should not be forwarded across such links. Routers in networks not

using private address space, especially those of Internet service

providers, are eXPected to be configured to reject (filter out)

routing information about private networks. If such a router

receives such information the rejection shall not be treated as a

routing protocol error.

Indirect references to such addresses should be contained within the

enterprise. Prominent examples of such references are DNS Resource

Records and other information referring to internal private

addresses. In particular, Internet service providers should take

measures to prevent such leakage.

4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Private Address Space

The obvious advantage of using private address space for the Internet

at large is to conserve the globally unique address space by not

using it where global uniqueness is not required.

Enterprises themselves also enjoy a number of benefits from their

usage of private address space: They gain a lot of flexibility in

network design by having more address space at their disposal than

they could obtain from the globally unique pool. This enables

operationally and administratively convenient addressing schemes as

well as easier growth paths.

For a variety of reasons the Internet has already encountered

situations where an enterprise that has not between connected to the

Internet had used IP address space for its hosts without getting this

space assigned from the IANA. In some cases this address space had

been already assigned to other enterprises. When such an enterprise

later connects to the Internet, it could potentially create very

serious problems, as IP routing cannot provide correct operations in

presence of ambiguous addressing. Using private address space

provides a safe choice for such enterprises, avoiding clashes once

outside connectivity is needed.

One could argue that the potential need for renumbering represents a

significant drawback of using the addresses out of the block

allocated for private internets. However, we need to observe that

the need is only "potential", since many hosts may never move into

the third category, and an enterprise may never decide to

interconnect (at IP level) with another enterprise.

But even if renumbering has to happen, we have to observe that with

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) an enterprise that is connected

to the Internet may be encouraged to renumber its public hosts, as it

changes its Network Service Providers. Thus renumbering is likely to

happen more often in the future, regardless of whether an enterprise

does or does not use the addresses out of the block allocated for

private networks. Tools to facilitate renumbering (e.g., DHCP) would

certainly make it less of a concern.

Also observe that the clear division of public and private hosts and

the resulting need to renumber makes uncontrolled outside

connectivity more difficult, so to some extend the need to renumber

could be viewed as an advantage.

5. Operational Considerations

A recommended strategy is to design the private part of the network

first and use private address space for all internal links. Then

plan public subnets at the locations needed and design the external

connectivity.

This design is not fixed permanently. If a number of hosts require

to change status later this can be accomplished by renumbering only

the hosts involved and installing another physical subnet if

required.

If a suitable subnetting scheme can be designed and is supported by

the equipment concerned, it is advisable to use the 24-bit block of

private address space and make an addressing plan with a good growth

path. If subnetting is a problem, the 16-bit class C block, which

consists of 255 contiguous class C network numbers, can be used.

Using multiple IP (sub)nets on the same physical medium has many

pitfalls. We recommend to avoid it unless the operational problems

are well understood and it is proven that all equipment supports this

properly.

Moving a single host between private and public status will involve a

change of address and in most cases physical connectivity. In

locations where such changes can be foreseen (machine rooms etc.) it

may be advisable to configure separate physical media for public and

private subnets to facilitate such changes.

Changing the status of all hosts on a whole (sub)network can be done

easily and without disruption for the enterprise network as a whole.

Consequently it is advisable to group hosts whose connectivity needs

might undergo similar changes in the future on their own subnets.

It is strongly recommended that routers which connect enterprises to

external networks are set up with appropriate packet and routing

filters at both ends of the link in order to prevent packet and

routing information leakage. An enterprise should also filter any

private networks from inbound routing information in order to protect

itself from ambiguous routing situations which can occur if routes to

the private address space point outside the enterprise.

Groups of organisations which foresee a big need for mutual

communication can consider forming an enterprise by designing a

common addressing plan supported by the necessary organisational

arrangements like a registry.

If two sites of the same enterprise need to be connected using an

external service provider, they can consider using an IP tunnel to

prevent packet leaks form the private network.

A possible approach to avoid leaking of DNS RRs is to run two

nameservers, one external server authoritative for all globally

unique IP addresses of the enterprise and one internal nameserver

authoritative for all IP addresses of the enterprise, both public and

private. In order to ensure consistency both these servers should be

configured from the same data of which the external nameserver only

receives a filtered version.

The resolvers on all internal hosts, both public and private, query

only the internal nameserver. The external server resolves queries

from resolvers outside the enterprise and is linked into the global

DNS. The internal server forwards all queries for information

outside the enterprise to the external nameserver, so all internal

hosts can access the global DNS. This ensures that information about

private hosts does not reach resolvers and nameservers outside the

enterprise.

6. References

[1] Gerich, E., "Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space", RFC

1466, Merit Network, Inc., May 1993.

7. Security Considerations

While using private address space can improve security, it is not a

substitute for dedicated security measures.

8. Conclusion

With the described scheme many large enterprises will need only a

relatively small block of addresses from the globally unique IP

address space. The Internet at large benefits through conservation

of globally unique address space which will effectively lengthen the

lifetime of the IP address space. The enterprises benefit from the

increased flexibility provided by a relatively large private address

space.

9. Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Tony Bates (RIPE NCC), Jordan Becker (ANS),

Hans-Werner Braun (SDSC), Ross Callon (Wellfleet), John Curran

(NEARNET), Vince Fuller (Barrnet), Tony Li (cisco Systems), Anne Lord

(RIPE NCC), Milo Medin (NSI), Marten Terpstra (RIPE NCC), and Geza

Turchanyi (RIPE NCC) for their review and constructive comments.

10. Authors' Addresses

Yakov Rekhter

T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp.

P.O. Box 218

Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598

Phone: +1 914 945 3896

Fax: +1 914 945 2141

EMail: yakov@watson.ibm.com

Robert G Moskowitz

Chrysler Corporation

CIMS: 424-73-00

25999 Lawrence Ave

Center Line, MI 48015

Phone: +1 810 758 8212

Fax: +1 810 758 8173

EMail: 3858921@mcimail.com

Daniel Karrenberg

RIPE Network Coordination Centre

Kruislaan 409

1098 SJ Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Phone: +31 20 592 5065

Fax: +31 20 592 5090

EMail: Daniel.Karrenberg@ripe.net

Geert Jan de Groot

RIPE Network Coordination Centre

Kruislaan 409

1098 SJ Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Phone: +31 20 592 5065

Fax: +31 20 592 5090

EMail: GeertJan.deGroot@ripe.net

 
免责声明:本文为网络用户发布,其观点仅代表作者个人观点,与本站无关,本站仅提供信息存储服务。文中陈述内容未经本站证实,其真实性、完整性、及时性本站不作任何保证或承诺,请读者仅作参考,并请自行核实相关内容。
 
  Network Working Group Y. Rekhter Request for Comments: 1597 T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp. Category: Informational B. Moskowitz Chrysler Corp. D. Karrenberg RIPE NCC G. de Groot RIPE NCC March 1994 Address Allocation for Private Internets Status of this Memo This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. 1. IntrodUCtion This RFCdescribes methods to preserve IP address space by not allocating globally unique IP addresses to hosts private to an enterprise while still permitting full network layer connectivity between all hosts inside an enterprise as well as between all public hosts of different enterprises. The authors hope, that using these methods, significant savings can be made on allocating IP address space. For the purposes of this memo, an enterprise is an entity autonomously operating a network using TCP/IP and in particular determining the addressing plan and address assignments within that network. 2. Motivation With the proliferation of TCP/IP technology worldwide, including outside the Internet itself, an increasing number of non-connected enterprises use this technology and its addressing capabilities for sole intra-enterprise communications, without any intention to ever directly connect to other enterprises or the Internet itself. The current practice is to assign globally unique addresses to all hosts that use TCP/IP. There is a growing concern that the finite IP address space might become exhausted. Therefore, the guidelines for assigning IP address space have been tightened in recent years [1]. These rules are often more conservative than enterprises would like, in order to implement and operate their networks. Hosts within enterprises that use IP can be partitioned into three categories: - hosts that do not require Access to hosts in other enterprises or the Internet at large; - hosts that need access to a limited set of outside services (e.g., E-mail, FTP, netnews, remote login) which can be handled by application layer gateways; - hosts that need network layer access outside the enterprise (provided via IP connectivity); - hosts within the first category may use IP addresses that are unambiguous within an enterprise, but may be ambiguous between enterprises. For many hosts in the second category an unrestricted external access (provided via IP connectivity) may be unnecessary and even undesirable for privacy/security reasons. Just like hosts within the first category, such hosts may use IP addresses that are unambiguous within an enterprise, but may be ambiguous between enterprises. Only hosts in the last category require IP addresses that are globally unambiguous. Many applications require connectivity only within one enterprise and do not even need external connectivity for the majority of internal hosts. In larger enterprises it is often easy to identify a substantial number of hosts using TCP/IP that do not need network layer connectivity outside the enterprise. Some examples, where external connectivity might not be required, are: - A large airport which has its arrival/departure displays individually addressable via TCP/IP. It is very unlikely that these displays need to be directly accessible from other networks. - Large organisations like banks and retail chains are switching to TCP/IP for their internal communication. Large numbers of local workstations like cash registers, money machines, and equipment at clerical positions rarely need to have such connectivity. - For security reasons, many enterprises use application layer gateways (e.g., firewalls) to connect their internal network to the Internet. The internal network usually does not have direct access to the Internet, thus only one or more firewall hosts are visible from the Internet. In this case, the internal network can use non-unique IP numbers. - If two enterprises communicate over their own private link, usually only a very limited set of hosts is mutually reachable from the other enterprise over this link. Only those hosts need globally unique IP numbers. - Interfaces of routers on an internal network usually do not need to be directly accessible from outside the enterprise. 3. Private Address Space The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private networks: 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 We will refer to the first block as "24-bit block", the second as "20-bit block, and to the third as "16-bit" block. Note that the first block is nothing but a single class A network number, while the second block is a set of 16 contiguous class B network numbers, and third block is a set of 255 contiguous class C network numbers. An enterprise that decides to use IP addresses out of the address space defined in this document can do so without any coordination with IANA or an Internet registry. The address space can thus be used by many enterprises. Addresses within this private address space will only be unique within the enterprise. As before, any enterprise that needs globally unique address space is required to oBTain such addresses from an Internet registry. An enterprise that requests IP addresses for its external connectivity will never be assigned addresses from the blocks defined above. In order to use private address space, an enterprise needs to determine which hosts do not need to have network layer connectivity outside the enterprise in the foreseeable future. Such hosts will be called private hosts, and will use the private address space defined above. Private hosts can communicate with all other hosts inside the enterprise, both public and private. However, they cannot have IP connectivity to any external host. While not having external network layer connectivity private hosts can still have access to external services via application layer relays. All other hosts will be called public and will use globally unique address space assigned by an Internet Registry. Public hosts can communicate with other hosts inside the enterprise both public and private and can have IP connectivity to external public hosts. Public hosts do not have connectivity to private hosts of other enterprises. Moving a host from private to public or vice versa involves a change of IP address. Because private addresses have no global meaning, routing information about private networks shall not be propagated on inter-enterprise links, and packets with private source or destination addresses should not be forwarded across such links. Routers in networks not using private address space, especially those of Internet service providers, are eXPected to be configured to reject (filter out) routing information about private networks. If such a router receives such information the rejection shall not be treated as a routing protocol error. Indirect references to such addresses should be contained within the enterprise. Prominent examples of such references are DNS Resource Records and other information referring to internal private addresses. In particular, Internet service providers should take measures to prevent such leakage. 4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Private Address Space The obvious advantage of using private address space for the Internet at large is to conserve the globally unique address space by not using it where global uniqueness is not required. Enterprises themselves also enjoy a number of benefits from their usage of private address space: They gain a lot of flexibility in network design by having more address space at their disposal than they could obtain from the globally unique pool. This enables operationally and administratively convenient addressing schemes as well as easier growth paths. For a variety of reasons the Internet has already encountered situations where an enterprise that has not between connected to the Internet had used IP address space for its hosts without getting this space assigned from the IANA. In some cases this address space had been already assigned to other enterprises. When such an enterprise later connects to the Internet, it could potentially create very serious problems, as IP routing cannot provide correct operations in presence of ambiguous addressing. Using private address space provides a safe choice for such enterprises, avoiding clashes once outside connectivity is needed. One could argue that the potential need for renumbering represents a significant drawback of using the addresses out of the block allocated for private internets. However, we need to observe that the need is only "potential", since many hosts may never move into the third category, and an enterprise may never decide to interconnect (at IP level) with another enterprise. But even if renumbering has to happen, we have to observe that with Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) an enterprise that is connected to the Internet may be encouraged to renumber its public hosts, as it changes its Network Service Providers. Thus renumbering is likely to happen more often in the future, regardless of whether an enterprise does or does not use the addresses out of the block allocated for private networks. Tools to facilitate renumbering (e.g., DHCP) would certainly make it less of a concern. Also observe that the clear division of public and private hosts and the resulting need to renumber makes uncontrolled outside connectivity more difficult, so to some extend the need to renumber could be viewed as an advantage. 5. Operational Considerations A recommended strategy is to design the private part of the network first and use private address space for all internal links. Then plan public subnets at the locations needed and design the external connectivity. This design is not fixed permanently. If a number of hosts require to change status later this can be accomplished by renumbering only the hosts involved and installing another physical subnet if required. If a suitable subnetting scheme can be designed and is supported by the equipment concerned, it is advisable to use the 24-bit block of private address space and make an addressing plan with a good growth path. If subnetting is a problem, the 16-bit class C block, which consists of 255 contiguous class C network numbers, can be used. Using multiple IP (sub)nets on the same physical medium has many pitfalls. We recommend to avoid it unless the operational problems are well understood and it is proven that all equipment supports this properly. Moving a single host between private and public status will involve a change of address and in most cases physical connectivity. In locations where such changes can be foreseen (machine rooms etc.) it may be advisable to configure separate physical media for public and private subnets to facilitate such changes. Changing the status of all hosts on a whole (sub)network can be done easily and without disruption for the enterprise network as a whole. Consequently it is advisable to group hosts whose connectivity needs might undergo similar changes in the future on their own subnets. It is strongly recommended that routers which connect enterprises to external networks are set up with appropriate packet and routing filters at both ends of the link in order to prevent packet and routing information leakage. An enterprise should also filter any private networks from inbound routing information in order to protect itself from ambiguous routing situations which can occur if routes to the private address space point outside the enterprise. Groups of organisations which foresee a big need for mutual communication can consider forming an enterprise by designing a common addressing plan supported by the necessary organisational arrangements like a registry. If two sites of the same enterprise need to be connected using an external service provider, they can consider using an IP tunnel to prevent packet leaks form the private network. A possible approach to avoid leaking of DNS RRs is to run two nameservers, one external server authoritative for all globally unique IP addresses of the enterprise and one internal nameserver authoritative for all IP addresses of the enterprise, both public and private. In order to ensure consistency both these servers should be configured from the same data of which the external nameserver only receives a filtered version. The resolvers on all internal hosts, both public and private, query only the internal nameserver. The external server resolves queries from resolvers outside the enterprise and is linked into the global DNS. The internal server forwards all queries for information outside the enterprise to the external nameserver, so all internal hosts can access the global DNS. This ensures that information about private hosts does not reach resolvers and nameservers outside the enterprise. 6. References [1] Gerich, E., "Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space", RFC 1466, Merit Network, Inc., May 1993. 7. Security Considerations While using private address space can improve security, it is not a substitute for dedicated security measures. 8. Conclusion With the described scheme many large enterprises will need only a relatively small block of addresses from the globally unique IP address space. The Internet at large benefits through conservation of globally unique address space which will effectively lengthen the lifetime of the IP address space. The enterprises benefit from the increased flexibility provided by a relatively large private address space. 9. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Tony Bates (RIPE NCC), Jordan Becker (ANS), Hans-Werner Braun (SDSC), Ross Callon (Wellfleet), John Curran (NEARNET), Vince Fuller (Barrnet), Tony Li (cisco Systems), Anne Lord (RIPE NCC), Milo Medin (NSI), Marten Terpstra (RIPE NCC), and Geza Turchanyi (RIPE NCC) for their review and constructive comments. 10. Authors' Addresses Yakov Rekhter T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp. P.O. Box 218 Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598 Phone: +1 914 945 3896 Fax: +1 914 945 2141 EMail: yakov@watson.ibm.com Robert G Moskowitz Chrysler Corporation CIMS: 424-73-00 25999 Lawrence Ave Center Line, MI 48015 Phone: +1 810 758 8212 Fax: +1 810 758 8173 EMail: 3858921@mcimail.com Daniel Karrenberg RIPE Network Coordination Centre Kruislaan 409 1098 SJ Amsterdam, the Netherlands Phone: +31 20 592 5065 Fax: +31 20 592 5090 EMail: Daniel.Karrenberg@ripe.net Geert Jan de Groot RIPE Network Coordination Centre Kruislaan 409 1098 SJ Amsterdam, the Netherlands Phone: +31 20 592 5065 Fax: +31 20 592 5090 EMail: GeertJan.deGroot@ripe.net
󰈣󰈤
 
 
 
>>返回首页<<
 
 热帖排行
 
 
静静地坐在废墟上,四周的荒凉一望无际,忽然觉得,凄凉也很美
©2005- 王朝网络 版权所有