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Turbo C cheng xu she ji chu bu

2008-06-01 02:07:27 编辑來源:互联网 评论
 
 
 
本文为【Turbo C 程序设计初步】的拼音翻译版
  ben jie zhu yao jie shao Turbo C cheng xu she ji de ji ben bu zhou ji ru he bian yi 、 tiao shi he yun xing yuan cheng xu 。 bing gei chu Turbo C de chang yong bian ji ming ling 。 zui hou jie shao Turbo C bian yi 、 lian jie he yun xing shi de chang jian cuo wu 。 yi 、Turbo C cheng xu she ji ji ben bu zhou cheng xu she ji fang fa bao kuo san ge ji ben bu zhou :
  di yi bu : fen xi wen ti 。
  di er bu : hua chu cheng xu de ji ben lun kuo 。
  di san bu : shi xian gai cheng xu 。
  3a. bian xie cheng xu
  3b. ce shi he tiao shi cheng xu
  3c. ti gong shu ju da yin jie guo
  xia mian , wo men lai shuo ming mei yi bu de ju ti xi jie 。
  di yi bu : fen xi wen ti
  zai zhe yi bu , ni bi xu :
  a. zuo wei jie jue wen ti de yi zhong fang fa , que ding yao chan sheng de shu ju ( shu chu )。 zuo wei zhe yi zi bu de yi bu fen , ni ying ding yi biao shi shu chu de bian liang 。
  b. que ding xu chan sheng shu chu de shu ju ( cheng wei shu ru ), zuo wei zhe yi zi bu de yi bu fen , ni ying ding yi biao shi shu ru de bian liang 。
  c. yan zhi yi zhong suan fa , cong you xian bu de shu ru zhong huo qu shu chu 。 zhe zhong suan fa ding yi wei jie gou hua de shun xu cao zuo , yi bian zai you xian bu nei jie jue wen ti 。 jiu shu zi wen ti er yan , zhe zhong suan fa bao kuo huo qu shu chu de ji suan , dan dui fei shu zi wen ti lai shuo , zhe zhong suan fa bao kuo xu duo wen ben he tu xiang chu li cao zuo 。
  di er bu : hua chu cheng xu de ji ben lun kuo
  zai zhe yi bu , ni yao yong yi xie ju zi ( wei dai ma ) lai hua chu cheng xu de ji ben lun kuo 。 mei ge ju zi dui ying yi ge jian dan de cheng xu cao zuo 。 dui yi ge jian dan de cheng xu lai shuo , tong guo lie chu cheng xu shun xu zhi xing de dong zuo , bian ke zhi jie chan sheng wei dai ma 。 ran er , dui fu duo yi xie de cheng xu lai shuo , ze xu yao jiang da zhi guo cheng you tiao li di jin xing zu zhi 。 dui ci , ying shi yong zi shang er xia de she ji fang fa 。
  dang shi yong zi shang er xia de she ji fang fa shi , ni yao ba cheng xu fen ge cheng ji duan lai wan cheng 。 lie chu mei duan yao shi xian de ren wu , cheng xu de lun kuo ye jiu you le , zhe cheng zhi wei zhu mo kuai 。 dang yi xiang ren wu lie zai zhu mo kuai shi , jin yong qi ming jia yi biao shi , bing wei zhi chu gai ren wu jiang ru he wan cheng 。 zhe fang mian de nei rong liu gei cheng xu she ji de xia yi jie duan lai tao lun 。 jiang cheng xu fen wei ji xiang ren wu zhi shi dui cheng xu de chu bu she ji 。 zheng ge cheng xu she ji gui jie wei xia tu suo shi de liu cheng tu 1.。
  ┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
  ┃ zhu mo kuai ┃
  ┏━━━━━━━┓ ┃ shu ru shu ju ┃
  ┃ zhu mo kuai ┃ ┃ ji suan gou fang suo xu de jin e ┃
  ┃ ┃ ┃ ji suan zhuang xiu suo xu de jin e ┃
  ┃ ren wu 1 ┃ ┃ ji suan zong jin e ┃
  ┃ ren wu 2 ┃ ┃ shu chu ji suan jie guo ┃
  ┃ ren wu 3 ┃ ┃ ┃
  ┃ ren wu 4 ┃ ┗━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━┛
  ┃ ┃ ┏━━━━━┳━━━━━╋━━━━┳━━━━━┓
  ┃ ┃ ┏━━┻━┓┏━━┻━┓┏━━┻━┓┏━┻━┓┏━━┻━┓
  ┗━━━━━━━┛ ┃ shu ru shu ju ┃┃ gou fang e ..┃┃ zhuang xiu e ..┃┃ zong e ..┃┃ shu chu jie guo ┃
  ┗━━━━┛┗━━━━┛┗━━━━┛┗━━━┛┗━━━━┛
  tu 1. cheng xu chu bu she ji tu 2. di er ji cheng xu she ji
  jia ru ba zhu mo kuai de mei xiang ren wu kuo zhan cheng yi ge mo kuai , bing gen ju zi ren wu jin xing ding yi de hua , na me , cheng xu she ji jiu geng wei ju ti le ( jian tu 2.)。 zhe xie mo kuai cheng wei zhu mo kuai de zi mo kuai 。 cheng xu zhong xu duo zi mo kuai zhi jian de guan xi ke xiang tu 2. zhong na yang gui jie wei yi zhang tu 。 zhe zhong tu cheng wei jie gou tu 。
  yao hua chu mo kuai de lun kuo , ni ke bu kao lv xi jie 。 jia ru zhe yang de hua , ni bi xu shi yong zi mo kuai , jiang ge ge mo kuai qiu jing , da dao di san ji she ji 。 ji xu zhe yi guo cheng , zhi zhi shuo ming cheng xu de quan bu xi jie 。
  zhe yi ji yi ji de she ji guo cheng cheng wei zhu bu qiu jing fa 。 zai bian xie cheng xu zhi qian , dui ni de cheng xu jin xing zhu bu qiu jing , dui ni lai shuo , shi hen hao de cheng xu she ji shi jian , hui shi ni yang cheng liang hao de she ji xi guan 。
  wo men ze cai miao shu le cheng xu she ji zhong zi shang er xia de she ji fang fa 。 shi ji shang jiu shi shuo , wo men she ji cheng xu shi cong cheng xu de " ding bu " kai shi yi zhi kao lv dao cheng xu de " di bu "。
  di san bu : shi xian gai cheng xu
  cheng xu she ji de zui hou yi bu shi bian xie yuan ma cheng xu 。 zai zhe yi bu , ba mo kuai de wei dai ma fan yi cheng Turbo C yu ju 。
  dui yu yuan cheng xu , ni ying bao han zhu shi fang shi de wen jian bian zhi , yi miao shu cheng xu ge ge bu fen zuo he zhong gong zuo 。 ci wai , yuan cheng xu huan ying bao han tiao shi cheng xu duan , yi ce shi cheng xu de yun xing qing kuang , bing da ying cha zhao bian cheng cuo wu 。 yi dan cheng xu yun xing qing kuang liang hao , ke qu diao tiao shi cheng xu duan , ran er , wen jian bian zhi ying zuo wei yuan cheng xu de gu ding bu fen bao liu xia lai , bian yu ni huo qi ta ren wei hu he xiu gai 。
  er 、 yuan cheng xu de shu ru 、 bian yi he yun xing
  
   C yu yan shi yi zhong zhong ji yu yan , yong hu yong C yu yan bian xie de cheng xu cheng wei yuan cheng xu , cun fang yong C yu yan suo xie yuan cheng xu wen jian ming zi zui hou de liang ge zi fu yi ban bi xu wei ".c"。 ji suan ji ying jian bu neng zhi jie zhi xing yuan cheng xu , bi xu jiang yuan cheng xu fan yi cheng er jin zhi mu biao cheng xu 。 fan yi gong zuo shi you yi ge cheng xu wan cheng de , zhe ge cheng xu cheng wei bian yi cheng xu , fan yi de guo cheng cheng wei bian yi , bian yi de jie guo cheng wei mu biao cheng xu , cun fang mu biao cheng xu wen jian ming zi jin hou de zi fu yi ban wei ".OBJ" huo ".O"。 cheng xu fan yi cheng mu biao cheng xu hou , bian ke jin xing lian jie 。" lian jie " de mu de shi shi cheng xu bian cheng zai ji suan ji shang ke yi zhi xing de zui zhong xing shi 。 zai zhe yi jie duan , cong xi tong cheng xu ku lai de cheng xu yao yu mu biao cheng xu lian jie , lian jie de jie guo cheng wei zhi xing cheng xu , cun fang zhi xing cheng xu wen jian ming zi yi ban yi ".EXE" jie yi 。
  zai Turbo C ji cheng kai fa huan jing zhong jian li yi ge xin cheng xu tong chang you yi xia ji ge bu zhou :
  (1). zai bian ji qi zhong bian xie yuan wen jian 。
  (2). sheng cheng ke zhi xing wen jian 。
  zai DOS ti shi fu xia jian ru TC, ji ke jin ru Turbo C le 。 jin ru zhu TC ping hou , an F3 jian , ji ke zai sui zhi chu xian de kuang zhong shu ru wen jian ming , wen jian ming ke yi dai ".C" ye ke yi bu dai ( ci shi xi tong hui zi dong jia shang )。 shu ru wen jian ming hou , an hui che , ji ke jiang wen jian tiao ru , jia ru wen jian bu cun zai , jiu jian li yi ge xin wen jian ( ye ke yong xia mian li zi zhong de fang fa shu ru wen jian ming )。 xi tong sui zhi jin ru bian ji zhuang tai 。 jiu ke yi shu ru huo xiu gai yuan cheng xu le , yuan cheng xu shu ru huo xiu gai wan bi yi hou , an Ctrl+F9( tong shi an xia Ctrl jian he F9 jian ), ze li ji jin xing bian yi 、 lian jie he zhi xing , zhe san xiang gong zuo shi lian xu wan cheng de 。
  xia mian wo men shi zhe jian li yi ge Turbo C ming wei "HELLO.C" de yuan cheng xu ( yin cheng xu hen xiao , zhe li jiu bu hua chu gai cheng xu de lun kuo tu le ):
  1. cao zuo bu zhou :
  (1). jiang xi tong zhi yu DOS ti shi fu xia :
  (2). jian ru ming ling :
  tc hello.c
  shi xi tong jin ru Turbo C ji cheng kai fa huan jing , bing jian li yi ge ming wei HELLO.C de wen jian 。 zhe shi , xi tong jin ru Turbo C bian ji huan jing 。
  (3). tong guo jian pan shu ru cheng xu , li ru :
  main()
  {
  printf("Hello, world\n");
  }
  ze cheng xu jin ru ji suan ji cun zhu qi 。
  2. cheng xu cun pan
  wei fang zhi yi wai shi gu diu shi cheng xu , zui hao jiang shu ru de cheng xu cun zhu dao ci pan zhong 。 zai bian ji chuang kou xia , ke zhi jie an F2 jian huo an F10 jian , zai an F jian jin ru File cai dan xiang , zai an S huo W jian jiang wen jian cun pan 。 cun pan shi ping mu zui di xing hui xian shi :
  "saving edit file"
  3. bian yi yi ge cheng xu
  dui yuan cheng xu jin xing bian yi you liang zhong fang fa : (1). zhi jie an Alt+F9 ji ke 。(2). an F10 jian fan hui zhu cai dan , xuan ze Compile xiang , ping mu xian shi Compile xia la cai dan , cong xia la cai dan zhong xuan ze Compile to .OBJ xiang , an hui che jian 。
  jin ru bian yi zhuang tai hou , ping mu hui chu xian yi ge bian yi chuang kou , ji miao zhong hou , ping mu xian shi yi shan shuo xin xi :
  SUCcess: press any key
  biao shi bian yi cheng gong 。 ci shi ke an ren yi jian , bian yi chuang kou xiao shi , guang biao fan hui zhu cai dan 。 jia ru bian yi shi chan sheng jing gao Warning huo chu cuo Error xin xi , zhe xie ju ti cuo wu xin xi hui xian shi zai ping mu xia bu de xin xi chuang zhong , bi xu jiu zheng zhe xie cuo wu 。 dui yuan cheng xu jin xing xiu gai , chong xin jin xing bian yi 。
  4. yun xing cheng xu
  yuan cheng xu jing bian yi wu wu hou , ke yi tou ru yun xing 。 ju ti cao zuo ru xia :
  (1). jia ru dang qian huan zai bian ji zhuang tai , ke an Alt+R, zai xuan ze RUN xiang ji ke 。
  (2). an Ctrl+F9。
  cheng xu tou ru yun xing shi , ping mu hui chu xian yi ge lian jie chuang kou , xian shi Turbo C zheng zai lian jie he cheng xu suo xu de ku han shu 。 lian jie wan bi hou , hui chu xian ping mu hu ran yi shan , hou you hui dao TC zhu ping mu , fa sheng le shen me ? rang wo men an Alt+F5 kan kan , ci shi ping mu bei qing chu , zai ding bu xian shi "Hello, world" zi yang 。 zai an ren yi jian , ji ke you hui dao TC zhu ping mu 。
  5. lie ci pan wen jian mu lu
  xian zai qing an Alt+X tui chu Turbo C, fan hui DOS ti shi fu , jian ru dir hello.*, hui che , ze ping mu xian shi :
  HELLO C 42 1-09-93 10:18
  HELLO OBJ 221 1-09-93 10:22
  HELLO EXE 4486 1-09-93 10:25
  ...
  di yi ge wen jian HELLO.C shi yuan wen jian wen ben , zai DOS ti shi fu xia jian ru TYPE HELLO.C ming ling , ke zai ping mu shang xian shi gai wen jian de nei rong 。 ke kan dao gai cheng xu zhi you 42 ge zi jie 。
  di er ge wen jian HELLO.OBJ shi Turbo C bian ze cheng xu chan sheng de er jin zhi ji qi zhi ling ( mu biao ma ), jia ru yong DOS ming ling TYPE xian shi gai wen jian , ping mu ke neng hui chu xian hun luan de xin xi 。
  di san ge wen jian HELLO.EXE shi Turbo C lian jie cheng xu chan sheng de shi ji ke zhi xing wen jian 。 zai DOS ti shi fu xia jian ru HELLO bing an hui che , ping mu jiang xian shi "Hello, world"。
  
   Turbo C chang yong de bian ji ming ling
  Turbo C bian ji cheng xu da yue you 50 tiao ming ling , yong yi yi dong guang biao , an ye cha kan zheng wen , cha zhao bing ti huan zi fu chuan deng 。 ru xia biao suo shi 。
  biao 1. Turbo C bian ji cheng xu ming ling
  ━━━┳━━━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  
  
  lei bie ┃ gong neng ┃ mo ren jian
  ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  ┃ zi fu zuo ┃ Ctrl+S huo Left
  ji ┃ zi fu you ┃ Ctrl+D huo Right
  ben ┃ zi zuo ┃ Ctrl+A
  guang ┃ zi you ┃ Ctrl+F
  biao ┃ shang xing ┃ Ctrl+E huo Up
  yi ┃ xia xing ┃ Ctrl+X huo Down
  dong ┃ shang gun ┃ Ctrl+W
  ming ┃ xia gun ┃ Ctrl+Z
  ling ┃ shang yi ye ┃ Ctrl+R huo PgUp
  ┃ xia yi ye ┃ Ctrl+C huo PgDn
  ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  kuai ┃ xing tou ┃ Ctrl+QS huo Home
  su ┃ xing yi ┃ Ctrl+QD huo End
  guang ┃ chuang kou tou ┃ Ctrl+QE
  biao ┃ chuang kou di ┃ Ctrl+QX
  yi ┃ wen jian tou ┃ Ctrl+QR
  dong ┃ wen jian yi ┃ Ctrl+QC
  ming ┃ kuai tou ┃ Ctrl+QB
  ling ┃ kuai yi ┃ Ctrl+QK
  ┃ shang ci guang biao wei zhi ┃ Ctrl+QP
  ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  shu ┃ cha ru mo shi ┃ Ctrl+V huo Ins
  ru ┃ cha ru xing ┃ Ctrl+N
  yu ┃ shan chu xing ┃ Ctrl+Y
  shan ┃ shan chu zhi xing yi ┃ Ctrl+QY
  chu ┃ shan chu guang biao zuo bian zi fu ┃ Ctrl+H huo Backspace
  ming ┃ shan chu guang biao chu zi fu ┃ Ctrl+G huo Del
  ling ┃ shan chu guang biao you bian zi fu ┃ Ctrl+T
  ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  ┃ biao ji kuai shou ┃ Ctrl+KB
  ┃ biao ji kuai yi ┃ Ctrl+KK
  ┃ biao ji dan ge zi ┃ Ctrl+KT
  kuai ┃ fu zhi kuai ┃ Ctrl+KC
  ming ┃ shan chu kuai ┃ Ctrl+KY
  ling ┃ kuai qu xiao ┃ Ctrl+KH
  ┃ kuai yi dong ┃ Ctrl+KV
  ┃ du kuai ┃ Ctrl+KR
  ┃ xie kuai ┃ Ctrl+KW
  ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  ┃ yi chang jie shu cao zuo ┃ Ctrl+U huo Ctrl+Break
  ┃ zhi biao ┃ Ctrl+L huo Tab
  qi ┃ zi dong suo jin ┃ Ctrl+OI
  ┃ ding jie fu pei dui ┃ Ctrl+Q[ huo Ctrl+Q]
  ta ┃ cha zhao ┃ Ctrl+QF
  ┃ cha zhao bing ti huan ┃ Ctrl+QA
  ┃ cha zhao biao ji ┃ Ctrl+QN
  ┃ tui chu bian ji ┃ Ctrl+KQ
  ━━━┻━━━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  Turbo C cheng xu de tiao shi
  yi ge cheng xu she ji hao le yi hou , tong chang hui you yi xie cuo wu , cha zhao he xiu gai cheng xu zhong de cuo wu shi ling ren tou tong de shi 。Turbo C ji cheng kai fa huan jing ti gong le yi tiao shi zhuang zhi , shi de zhe yi ge gong zuo qing yi le xu duo , cheng xu tiao shi da dao le bian yi he yun xing ji 。
  yi 、TC xiao xi chuang kou
  shi yong TC zui hao de li you zhi yi shi ta da ying yong hu xiu gai yu fa cuo wu ( bian yi shi ) he ping gu bian yi qi gei chu de jing gao 。TC jiang bian yi qi he lian jie qi fa chu de xiao xi shou ji dao yi huan chong qu zhong , ran hou zai xiao xi chuang kou zhong xian shi , zhe yang zai fang wen yuan dai ma de tong shi , huan neng yi xia kan dao zhe xie xiao xi 。
  xian jiang shang mian de HELLO.C zhi zao yi dian yu fa cuo wu , jiang di yi xing bao han yu ju de # qu diao , zai qu diao di wu xing printf yu ju zhong de hou yin hao 。 xian zai cheng xu kan shang qu shi zhe yang de :
  include
  main()
  {
  printf("Hello, world\n);
  }
  an CTRL+F9 chong xin bian yi zhi 。 bian yi chuang kou jiang xian shi you duo shao cuo wu he jing gao : ying wei liang ge cuo wu , 0 ge jing gao 。
  dang kan jian bian yi chuang kou zhong de Press anykey ti shi shi , an kong ge jian , xiao xi chuang kou ma shang bei ji huo , liang tiao chu xian zai di yi ge cuo wu huo jing gao shang , zhe shi bian ji chuang kou zhong ye hui you yi liang tiao --- ta biao zhi zhe bian yi qi gei chu de cuo wu huo jing gao zai yuan dai ma zhong de xiang ying wei zhi 。
  zhe shi ke yong guang biao jian jiang xiao xi chuang kou zhong de liang tiao shang xia yi dong , zhu chong dao bian ji chuang kou zhong de liang tiao ye sui zhe gen zong yuan dai ma zhong cuo wu fa sheng de wei zhi 。 jia ru jiang liang tiao zhi yu "compile" shang , ze bian ji qi xian shi wen jian de zui hou wei zhi 。
  jia ru xiao xi chuang kou tai chang kan bu jian , ke yong zuo 、 you guang biao shui ping gun dong xiao xi , wei le yi ci neng gou duo kan dian xin xi , ke an F5 fang da xiao xi chuang kou 。 fang da hou , bian ji chuang kou bu ke jian le , yin ci bu jin xing cuo wu gen zong 。 xian zai , bao chi fen ping mo shi 。
  wei le gai zheng cuo wu , jiang xiao xi chuang kou zhong de liang tiao zhi yu di yi ge cuo wu xiao xi shang , hui che , guang biao yi dao bian ji chuang kou zhong cuo wu chan sheng chu , zhu chong , bian ji qi zhuang tai gei chu suo xuan xiao xi ( zhe zai fang da mo shi xia shi you yong de ) gai zheng zhi 。( jiang di yi xing na zou de # chong xin xie shang )。
  dang bu zhi yi ge cuo wu shi , ke yong liang zhong fang fa lai xiu gai xia yi cuo wu 。
  di yi zhong fang fa he qian mian yi yang , an F6 hui dao xiao xi chuang kou xuan ze xiang xiu gai de xia yi tiao xiao xi 。
  di er zhong fang fa bu yong hui dao xiao xi chuang kou , zhi yao an Alt+F8, bian yi qi jiu hui jiang guang biao yi zhi xiao xi chuang kou zhong lie de xia yi ge cuo wu 。 an Alt+F7 ke yi zhi qian yi ge cuo wu 。
  zhe liang zhong fang fa ge you chang duan , shi qing kuang er ding 。 you shi yuan dai ma zhong yi ge yu chun de cuo wu ba bian yi nong hu tu le , chan sheng hao duo xiao xi , zhe shi xuan ze xiu gai di yi tiao xiao xi jiu shi de qi yu de yi xie cuo wu xiao xi mei you shen me yi yi le , zhe zhong qing kuang fa sheng shi , shi yong fang fa yi hui fang bian xie , yi xiu gai wan di yi ge cuo wu zhi hou hui dao xiao xi chuang kou , zai gun dong dao xia yi ge you yi yi de xiao xi shang , xuan ze zhi 。 zai bie de qing kuang xia , an Alt+F8 hui fang bian de duo 。
  ji zhu , Alt+F7 he Alt+F8 shi re jian , TC zhong wu lun he shi yun qi zuo yong 。 yin ci zai xiao xi chuang kou zhong an Alt+F8 de dao de bu shi dang qian liang xing xiao xi , er shi xia yi ge xiao xi ( an Enter xuan ze dang qian xiao xi )。
  dan jia ru mei bie de bian yi xiao xi , Alt+F8 jiu bu qi zuo yong le 。
  zhu : ke yi ru ci fa xuan ze lian jie xiao xi , dan ta men bu gen zong yuan wen jian 。 zai xiu gai yu fa cuo wu de guo cheng dang zhong , jing chang xu yao zeng jia 、 shan chu zheng wen , bian ji qi shi ji zhu de , yi ran neng zheng que ding wei cuo wu wei zhi 。
  mei you bi yao ji zhu xing hao he zeng jia 、 shan chu de zheng wen xing 。
  
   er 、Turbo C ji cheng tiao shi qi
  yi dan xiu gai hao yu fa cuo wu zhi hou cheng xu bian yi jiu mei shen me wen ti le , dan huan shi ke neng bu an yao qiu yun xing , yin wei ke neng you luo ji cuo wu ( yun xing cuo wu )。 zhe zhong cuo wu gen zong jiu wu zhu yu fa xian cuo wu wei zhi le 。
  
   TC you yi ge ji cheng tiao shi qi ke yi gen zong yun xing cuo wu 。 tong guo tiao shi qi ke yi yun xing , zai duan dian chu zan ting , jian cha bian liang de zhi , shen zhi ke yi gai bian zhi , yi kan cheng xu hui you shen me fan ying 。
  Turbo C ji cheng tiao shi qi shi yuan cheng xu ji de tiao shi qi , ji yong tong ni bian xie cheng xu yi yang de " yu yan " lai kong zhi tiao shi qi 。 li ru , wei le xian shi shu zu zhong de yi ge yuan su de zhi , ke gao su tiao shi qi xian shi zhe yang de biao da shi de zhi :
  Ctrl+F4 Debug/Eavluate ji suan biao da shi , da ying xiu gai bian liang de zhi 。
  Debug/Find Function cha zhao han shu ding yi , xian shi zai bian ji chuang kou zhong 。 jin zai tiao shi shi cai you xiao 。
  Ctrl+F3 Debug/Call Stack xian shi tiao yong zhan , ke xian shi ren he han shu de dang qian zhi xing wei zhi , qi fang fa shi zai tiao yong zhan zhong xuan ze xiang ying de han shu ming 。 jin zai tiao shi shi you xiao 。
  Debug/Source Debugging kong zhi shi fou da ying tiao shi : zhi wei On shi , ji cheng tiao shi qi he dan du tiao shi qi yun ke yong ; zhi wei
  Standalone shi , zhi neng yong dan du tiao shi qi tiao shi , sui ran huan neng zai TC zhong yun xing ; zhi wei None shi , zai .EXE wen jian bu zhi tiao shi xin xi , liang zhong tiao shi yun bu neng tiao shi 。
  Ctrl+F4 Break/Watch/Add Watch zeng jia yi jian shi biao da shi 。
  Break/Watch/Delete Watch shan chu yi jian shi biao da shi 。
  Break/Watch/Edit bian ji yi jian shi biao da shi 。
  Break/Watch/Remove All shan chu suo you jian shi biao da shi 。
  Watches
  Ctrl+F8 Break/Watch/Toggle she zhi huo qing chu guang biao suo zai xing de duan dian 。
  Breakpoint
  Break/Watch/Clear shan chu cheng xu zhong suo you duan dian 。
  Breakpoint
  Break/Watch/Next xian shi xia yi duan dian
  Breakpoint
  ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  biao 3. tiao shi qi cai dan ming ling ji qi re jian
  ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  re jian cai dan ming ling gong neng
  ───────────────────────────────────
  F5 zai zheng ping he fen ping zhi jian fang da suo xiao huo dong chuang kou 。
  Alt+F5 jiang xian shi zhuan dao yong hu ping , ji ren yi jian fan hui 。
  F6 zai bian ji chuang kou yu jian shi chuang kou huo xiao xi chuang kou jian
  qie huan 。
  Alt+F6 ruo bian ji chuang kou shi huo dong de , zhuan dao zui jin yi ci
  zhuang ru bian ji qi de wen jian ; ruo xia mian chuang kou shi huo
  dong de , ze zai jian shi chuang kou he xiao xi chuang kou jian qie huan 。
  Ctrl+F9 Run/Run tiao shi yun xing huo bu tiao shi yun xing cheng xu , bi yao shi
  bian yi 、 lian jie yuan wen jian , ruo bian yi 、 lian jie shi
  Debug/Source Debuging he O/C/C/OBJ
  Debug Information wei On, ze yun xing cheng xu
  dao duan dian huo cheng xu mo yi 。
  Project/Remove Messages shan chu xiao xi chuang kou zhong de nei rong 。
  ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
  pan ding cheng xu shi fou chu cuo huo zhe wei shen me chu cuo shi bian cheng zhong zui you tiao zhan yi yi de yi fang mian 。 zhe li jian yi ni jin xing yu fang xing she ji , ju ti zuo fa wei :
  (1). jiang dai ma xie qing chu dian , ying zuo shi dang suo jin , shi yong wen zi shuo ming he miao shu xing de bian liang ming 。
  
   (2). dai ma ying jian dan , ba jing li fang zai jian dan yu ju zhong de fu duo biao da shi , er bu shi yi xie fu duo yu ju 。Turbo C de dai ma you hua ji zhi jiang da da ti gao dai ma de xiao lv , er qie tiao shi 、 yue du 、 xiu gai qi lai qing yi 。
  (3). jin liang yong mu de jian dan 、 hao ding yi de han shu gou jian cheng xu 。 zhe hui bian yu bian zhi tiao shi cheng xu he fen xi jie guo , er qie yue du 、 xiu gai qi lai ye yao qing yi yi xie 。
  (4). ying jin liang jian shao ge ge han shu yao qiu de shu ju he gai bian shu ju de yuan su ge shu 。 zhe ye hui bian yu bian zhi ce shi cheng xu he fen xi jie guo ; tong yang bian yu yue du 、 xiu gai cheng xu 。 bing qie huan xian zhi le chu cuo han shu ke neng zao cheng de ju da hun luan de qian she mian , bian de neng zai yi ge tiao shi jie zhong duo yun xing han shu ji ci 。
  (5). yao liu xin bian xie cheng xu zhong de gong gong han shu , huo zhe shuo zai qi ta cheng xu zhong ke zai yong de han shu 。
  bian xie 、 tiao shi yi ge yi ban xing de han shu tong chang yao bi bian xie 、 tiao shi liang ge huo geng duo de fei fan han shu yao qing yi 。
  Turbo C bian yi 、 lian jie he yun xing shi de chang jian cuo wu
  yi 、 bian yi shi de chang jian cuo wu
  1. shu ju lei xing cuo wu 。 ci lei cuo wu shi chu xue zhe bian cheng shi de chang jian xian xiang , xia mian shi yi xie yao yin qi zhu chong de cuo wu :
  (1) suo you bian liang he chang liang bi xu yao jia yi shuo ming 。
  (2) bian liang zhi neng fu gei xiang tong lei xing de shu ju 。
  (3) dui scanf() yu ju , yong hu ke neng shu ru cuo wu lei xing de shu ju xiang , zhe jiang dao zhi yun xing shi chu cuo , bing bao chu cuo xin xi 。 wei bi mian zhe yang de cuo wu chu xian , ni jiu ti shi yong hu shu ru zheng que lei xing de shu ju 。
  (4) zai zhi xing suan shu yun suan shi yao zhu chong :
  a. gen ju yu fa gui ze shu xie shuang jing du shu zi 。 yao xie 0.5, er bu shi xie .5; yao xie 1.0, er bu shi 1。 jin guan C yu yan hui zi dong di ba zheng xing zhuan huan cheng shuang jing du xing , dan shu xie shuang jing du xing shi ge hao xi guan 。 rang C yu yan wei ni zuo qiang xing zhuan huan zhe shi yi zhong xiao lv bu gao de cheng xu
  she ji feng ge 。 zhe you ke neng dao zhi zhuan huan chan sheng cuo wu 。
  b. bu yao yong 0 chu 。 zhe shi yi ge zai nan xing de cuo wu , ta hui dao zhi cheng xu shi bai , bu guan C yu yan de shen me ban ben , dou shi ru ci , zhi xing chu fa yun suan yao fei fan xiao xin 。
  c. que bao suo you de shuang jing du shu ( bao kuo na xie cheng xu shu ru yong de shuang jing du shu ) shi zai shi shu fan wei zhi nei 。
  d. suo you zheng shu bi xu zai zheng shu da ying de fan wei nei 。 zhe shi yong yu suo you ji suan jie guo , bao kuo zhong jian jie guo 。
  2. jiang han shu hou mian de ";" wang diao 。 ci shi cuo wu ti shi se bang jiang ting zai gai yu ju xia de yi xing , bing xian shi :
  Statement missing ; in function < han shu ming >
  3. gei hong zhi ling ru #include, #define deng yu ju yi jia le ";" hao 。
  4. "{" he "}"、"(" he ")"、"/*" he "*/" bu pi pei 。 yin shi se bang jiang wei yu cuo wu suo zai de xing , bing ti shi chu you guan diu diao kuo hao de xin xi 。
  5. mei you yong #include zhi ling shuo ming tou wen jian , cuo wu xin xi ti shi you guan gai han shu suo shi yong de shen shu wei ding yi 。
  6. shi yong le Turbo C bao liu yao hai zi zuo wei biao shi fu , ci shi jiang ti shi ding yi le tai duo shu ju lei xing 。
  7. jiang ding yi bian liang yu ju fang zai le zhi xing yu ju hou mian 。 ci shi hui ti shi yu fa cuo wu 。
  8. shi yong le wei ding yi de bian liang , ci shi ping mu xian shi :
  Undefined symbol '< bian liang ming >' in function < han shu ming >
  9. jing gao cuo wu tai duo 。 hu lue zhe xie jing gao cuo wu bing bu ying xiang cheng xu de zhi xing he jie guo 。 bian yi shi dang jing gao cuo wu shu mu da yu mou yi gui ding zhi shi ( que sheng wei 100) bian tui chu bian yi qi , zhe shi ying gai bian ji cheng kai fa huan jing Options/Compiler/Errors zhong de you guan jing gao cuo wu jian cha kai guan wei off。
  10. jiang guan xi fu "==" wu yong zuo fu zhi hao "="。 ci shi ping mu xian shi :
  Lvalue required in function < han shu ming >
  
   er 、 lian jie shi de chang jian cuo wu
  1. jiang Turbo C ku han shu ming xie cuo 。 zhe zhong qing kuang xia zai lian jie shi jiang hui ren wei ci han shu shi yong hu zi ding yi han shu 。 ci shi ping mu xian shi :
  Undefined symbol '< han shu ming >' in < cheng xu ming >
  
   2. duo ge wen jian lian jie shi , mei you zai "Project/Project name zhong zhi ding xiang mu wen jian (.PRJ wen jian ), ci shi chu xian zhao bu dao han shu de cuo wu 。
  3. zi han shu zai shuo ming he ding yi shi lei xing bu yi zhi 。
  4. cheng xu tiao yong de zi han shu mei you ding yi 。
  san 、 yun xing shi de chang jian cuo wu
  1. lu jing ming cuo wu 。 zai MS-DOS zhong , xie gang (\) biao shi yi ge mu lu ming ; er zai Turbo C zhong xie gang shi ge mou ge zi fu chuan de yi ge zhuan yi zi fu , zhe yang , zai yong Turbo C zi fu chuan gei chu yi ge lu jing ming shi ying kao lv "\" de zhuan yi de zuo yong 。 li ru , you zhe yang yi tiao yu ju :
  file=fopen("c:\new\tbc.dat", "rb");
  mu de shi da kai C pan zhong NEW mu lu zhong de TBC.DAT wen jian , dan zuo bu dao 。 zhe li "\" hou mian jin jie de fen bie "n" ji "t", "\n" ji "\t" jiang bei fen bie bian yi wei huan xing ji tab zi fu , DOS jiang ren wei ta shi bu zheng que de wen jian ming er ju jue jie shou , yin wei wen jian ming zhong bu neng he huan xing huo tab zi fu 。 zheng que de xie fa ying wei :
  file=fopen("c:\\new\\tbc.dat", "rb");
  2. ge shi hua shu ru shu chu shi , gui ding de lei xing yu bian liang ben shen de lei xing bu yi zhi 。 li ru :
  float l;
  printf("%c", l);
  3. scanf() han shu zhong jiang bian liang di zhi xie cheng bian liang 。 li ru :
  int l;
  scanf("%d", l);
  4. xun huan yu ju zhong , xun huan kong zhi bian liang zai mei ci xun huan wei jin xing xiu gai , shi xun huan cheng wei wu xian xun huan 。
  5. switch yu ju zhong mei you shi yong break yu ju 。
  6. jiang fu zhi hao "=" wu yong zuo guan xi fu "=="。
  7. duo ceng tiao jian yu ju de if he else bu pei dui 。
  8. yong dong tai nei cun fen pei han shu malloc() huo calloc() fen pei de nei cun qu shi yong wan zhi hou , wei yong free() han shu shi fang , hui dao zhi han shu qian ji ci tiao yong zheng chang , er hou mian tiao yong shi fa sheng si ji xian xiang , bu neng fan hui cao zuo xi tong 。 qi yuan yin shi yin wei mei yong kong jian ke gong fen pei , er zhan yong le cao zuo xi tong zai nei cun zhong de mou xie kong jian 。
  9. shi yong le dong tai fen pei nei cun bu cheng gong de zhi zhen , zao cheng xi tong po huai 。
  10. zai dui wen jian cao zuo shi , mei you zai shi yong wan ji shi guan bi da kai de wen jian 。【原文】【汉音对照
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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  ben jie zhu yao jie shao Turbo C cheng xu she ji de ji ben bu zhou ji ru he bian yi 、 tiao shi he yun xing yuan cheng xu 。 bing gei chu Turbo C de chang yong bian ji ming ling 。 zui hou jie shao Turbo C bian yi 、 lian jie he yun xing shi de chang jian cuo wu 。   yi 、Turbo C cheng xu she ji ji ben bu zhou   cheng xu she ji fang fa bao kuo san ge ji ben bu zhou :   di yi bu : fen xi wen ti 。    di er bu : hua chu cheng xu de ji ben lun kuo 。    di san bu : shi xian gai cheng xu 。   3a. bian xie cheng xu   3b. ce shi he tiao shi cheng xu   3c. ti gong shu ju da yin jie guo    xia mian , wo men lai shuo ming mei yi bu de ju ti xi jie 。    di yi bu : fen xi wen ti    zai zhe yi bu , ni bi xu :   a. zuo wei jie jue wen ti de yi zhong fang fa , que ding yao chan sheng de shu ju ( shu chu )。 zuo wei zhe yi zi bu de yi bu fen , ni ying ding yi biao shi shu chu de bian liang 。   b. que ding xu chan sheng shu chu de shu ju ( cheng wei shu ru ), zuo wei zhe yi zi bu de yi bu fen , ni ying ding yi biao shi shu ru de bian liang 。   c. yan zhi yi zhong suan fa , cong you xian bu de shu ru zhong huo qu shu chu 。 zhe zhong suan fa ding yi wei jie gou hua de shun xu cao zuo , yi bian zai you xian bu nei jie jue wen ti 。 jiu shu zi wen ti er yan , zhe zhong suan fa bao kuo huo qu shu chu de ji suan , dan dui fei shu zi wen ti lai shuo , zhe zhong suan fa bao kuo xu duo wen ben he tu xiang chu li cao zuo 。    di er bu : hua chu cheng xu de ji ben lun kuo    zai zhe yi bu , ni yao yong yi xie ju zi ( wei dai ma ) lai hua chu cheng xu de ji ben lun kuo 。 mei ge ju zi dui ying yi ge jian dan de cheng xu cao zuo 。 dui yi ge jian dan de cheng xu lai shuo , tong guo lie chu cheng xu shun xu zhi xing de dong zuo , bian ke zhi jie chan sheng wei dai ma 。 ran er , dui fu duo yi xie de cheng xu lai shuo , ze xu yao jiang da zhi guo cheng you tiao li di jin xing zu zhi 。 dui ci , ying shi yong zi shang er xia de she ji fang fa 。    dang shi yong zi shang er xia de she ji fang fa shi , ni yao ba cheng xu fen ge cheng ji duan lai wan cheng 。 lie chu mei duan yao shi xian de ren wu , cheng xu de lun kuo ye jiu you le , zhe cheng zhi wei zhu mo kuai 。 dang yi xiang ren wu lie zai zhu mo kuai shi , jin yong qi ming jia yi biao shi , bing wei zhi chu gai ren wu jiang ru he wan cheng 。 zhe fang mian de nei rong liu gei cheng xu she ji de xia yi jie duan lai tao lun 。 jiang cheng xu fen wei ji xiang ren wu zhi shi dui cheng xu de chu bu she ji 。 zheng ge cheng xu she ji gui jie wei xia tu suo shi de liu cheng tu 1.。   ┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓   ┃ zhu mo kuai ┃   ┏━━━━━━━┓ ┃ shu ru shu ju ┃   ┃ zhu mo kuai ┃ ┃ ji suan gou fang suo xu de jin e ┃   ┃ ┃ ┃ ji suan zhuang xiu suo xu de jin e ┃   ┃ ren wu 1 ┃ ┃ ji suan zong jin e ┃   ┃ ren wu 2 ┃ ┃ shu chu ji suan jie guo ┃   ┃ ren wu 3 ┃ ┃ ┃   ┃ ren wu 4 ┃ ┗━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━┛   ┃ ┃ ┏━━━━━┳━━━━━╋━━━━┳━━━━━┓   ┃ ┃ ┏━━┻━┓┏━━┻━┓┏━━┻━┓┏━┻━┓┏━━┻━┓   ┗━━━━━━━┛ ┃ shu ru shu ju ┃┃ gou fang e ..┃┃ zhuang xiu e ..┃┃ zong e ..┃┃ shu chu jie guo ┃   ┗━━━━┛┗━━━━┛┗━━━━┛┗━━━┛┗━━━━┛    tu 1. cheng xu chu bu she ji tu 2. di er ji cheng xu she ji    jia ru ba zhu mo kuai de mei xiang ren wu kuo zhan cheng yi ge mo kuai , bing gen ju zi ren wu jin xing ding yi de hua , na me , cheng xu she ji jiu geng wei ju ti le ( jian tu 2.)。 zhe xie mo kuai cheng wei zhu mo kuai de zi mo kuai 。 cheng xu zhong xu duo zi mo kuai zhi jian de guan xi ke xiang tu 2. zhong na yang gui jie wei yi zhang tu 。 zhe zhong tu cheng wei jie gou tu 。    yao hua chu mo kuai de lun kuo , ni ke bu kao lv xi jie 。 jia ru zhe yang de hua , ni bi xu shi yong zi mo kuai , jiang ge ge mo kuai qiu jing , da dao di san ji she ji 。 ji xu zhe yi guo cheng , zhi zhi shuo ming cheng xu de quan bu xi jie 。    zhe yi ji yi ji de she ji guo cheng cheng wei zhu bu qiu jing fa 。 zai bian xie cheng xu zhi qian , dui ni de cheng xu jin xing zhu bu qiu jing , dui ni lai shuo , shi hen hao de cheng xu she ji shi jian , hui shi ni yang cheng liang hao de she ji xi guan 。    wo men ze cai miao shu le cheng xu she ji zhong zi shang er xia de she ji fang fa 。 shi ji shang jiu shi shuo , wo men she ji cheng xu shi cong cheng xu de " ding bu " kai shi yi zhi kao lv dao cheng xu de " di bu "。    di san bu : shi xian gai cheng xu    cheng xu she ji de zui hou yi bu shi bian xie yuan ma cheng xu 。 zai zhe yi bu , ba mo kuai de wei dai ma fan yi cheng Turbo C yu ju 。    dui yu yuan cheng xu , ni ying bao han zhu shi fang shi de wen jian bian zhi , yi miao shu cheng xu ge ge bu fen zuo he zhong gong zuo 。 ci wai , yuan cheng xu huan ying bao han tiao shi cheng xu duan , yi ce shi cheng xu de yun xing qing kuang , bing da ying cha zhao bian cheng cuo wu 。 yi dan cheng xu yun xing qing kuang liang hao , ke qu diao tiao shi cheng xu duan , ran er , wen jian bian zhi ying zuo wei yuan cheng xu de gu ding bu fen bao liu xia lai , bian yu ni huo qi ta ren wei hu he xiu gai 。    er 、 yuan cheng xu de shu ru 、 bian yi he yun xing   C yu yan shi yi zhong zhong ji yu yan , yong hu yong C yu yan bian xie de cheng xu cheng wei yuan cheng xu , cun fang yong C yu yan suo xie yuan cheng xu wen jian ming zi zui hou de liang ge zi fu yi ban bi xu wei ".c"。 ji suan ji ying jian bu neng zhi jie zhi xing yuan cheng xu , bi xu jiang yuan cheng xu fan yi cheng er jin zhi mu biao cheng xu 。 fan yi gong zuo shi you yi ge cheng xu wan cheng de , zhe ge cheng xu cheng wei bian yi cheng xu , fan yi de guo cheng cheng wei bian yi , bian yi de jie guo cheng wei mu biao cheng xu , cun fang mu biao cheng xu wen jian ming zi jin hou de zi fu yi ban wei ".OBJ" huo ".O"。 cheng xu fan yi cheng mu biao cheng xu hou , bian ke jin xing lian jie 。" lian jie " de mu de shi shi cheng xu bian cheng zai ji suan ji shang ke yi zhi xing de zui zhong xing shi 。 zai zhe yi jie duan , cong xi tong cheng xu ku lai de cheng xu yao yu mu biao cheng xu lian jie , lian jie de jie guo cheng wei zhi xing cheng xu , cun fang zhi xing cheng xu wen jian ming zi yi ban yi ".EXE" jie yi 。    zai Turbo C ji cheng kai fa huan jing zhong jian li yi ge xin cheng xu tong chang you yi xia ji ge bu zhou :   (1). zai bian ji qi zhong bian xie yuan wen jian 。   (2). sheng cheng ke zhi xing wen jian 。    zai DOS ti shi fu xia jian ru TC, ji ke jin ru Turbo C le 。 jin ru zhu TC ping hou , an F3 jian , ji ke zai sui zhi chu xian de kuang zhong shu ru wen jian ming , wen jian ming ke yi dai ".C" ye ke yi bu dai ( ci shi xi tong hui zi dong jia shang )。 shu ru wen jian ming hou , an hui che , ji ke jiang wen jian tiao ru , jia ru wen jian bu cun zai , jiu jian li yi ge xin wen jian ( ye ke yong xia mian li zi zhong de fang fa shu ru wen jian ming )。 xi tong sui zhi jin ru bian ji zhuang tai 。 jiu ke yi shu ru huo xiu gai yuan cheng xu le , yuan cheng xu shu ru huo xiu gai wan bi yi hou , an Ctrl+F9( tong shi an xia Ctrl jian he F9 jian ), ze li ji jin xing bian yi 、 lian jie he zhi xing , zhe san xiang gong zuo shi lian xu wan cheng de 。    xia mian wo men shi zhe jian li yi ge Turbo C ming wei "HELLO.C" de yuan cheng xu ( yin cheng xu hen xiao , zhe li jiu bu hua chu gai cheng xu de lun kuo tu le ):   1. cao zuo bu zhou :   (1). jiang xi tong zhi yu DOS ti shi fu xia :   (2). jian ru ming ling :   tc hello.c    shi xi tong jin ru Turbo C ji cheng kai fa huan jing , bing jian li yi ge ming wei HELLO.C de wen jian 。 zhe shi , xi tong jin ru Turbo C bian ji huan jing 。   (3). tong guo jian pan shu ru cheng xu , li ru :   main()   {   printf("Hello, world\n");   }    ze cheng xu jin ru ji suan ji cun zhu qi 。   2. cheng xu cun pan    wei fang zhi yi wai shi gu diu shi cheng xu , zui hao jiang shu ru de cheng xu cun zhu dao ci pan zhong 。 zai bian ji chuang kou xia , ke zhi jie an F2 jian huo an F10 jian , zai an F jian jin ru File cai dan xiang , zai an S huo W jian jiang wen jian cun pan 。 cun pan shi ping mu zui di xing hui xian shi :   "saving edit file"   3. bian yi yi ge cheng xu    dui yuan cheng xu jin xing bian yi you liang zhong fang fa : (1). zhi jie an Alt+F9 ji ke 。(2). an F10 jian fan hui zhu cai dan , xuan ze Compile xiang , ping mu xian shi Compile xia la cai dan , cong xia la cai dan zhong xuan ze Compile to .OBJ xiang , an hui che jian 。    jin ru bian yi zhuang tai hou , ping mu hui chu xian yi ge bian yi chuang kou , ji miao zhong hou , ping mu xian shi yi shan shuo xin xi :   SUCcess: press any key    biao shi bian yi cheng gong 。 ci shi ke an ren yi jian , bian yi chuang kou xiao shi , guang biao fan hui zhu cai dan 。 jia ru bian yi shi chan sheng jing gao Warning huo chu cuo Error xin xi , zhe xie ju ti cuo wu xin xi hui xian shi zai ping mu xia bu de xin xi chuang zhong , bi xu jiu zheng zhe xie cuo wu 。 dui yuan cheng xu jin xing xiu gai , chong xin jin xing bian yi 。   4. yun xing cheng xu    yuan cheng xu jing bian yi wu wu hou , ke yi tou ru yun xing 。 ju ti cao zuo ru xia :   (1). jia ru dang qian huan zai bian ji zhuang tai , ke an Alt+R, zai xuan ze RUN xiang ji ke 。   (2). an Ctrl+F9。    cheng xu tou ru yun xing shi , ping mu hui chu xian yi ge lian jie chuang kou , xian shi Turbo C zheng zai lian jie he cheng xu suo xu de ku han shu 。 lian jie wan bi hou , hui chu xian ping mu hu ran yi shan , hou you hui dao TC zhu ping mu , fa sheng le shen me ? rang wo men an Alt+F5 kan kan , ci shi ping mu bei qing chu , zai ding bu xian shi "Hello, world" zi yang 。 zai an ren yi jian , ji ke you hui dao TC zhu ping mu 。   5. lie ci pan wen jian mu lu    xian zai qing an Alt+X tui chu Turbo C, fan hui DOS ti shi fu , jian ru dir hello.*, hui che , ze ping mu xian shi :   HELLO C 42 1-09-93 10:18   HELLO OBJ 221 1-09-93 10:22   HELLO EXE 4486 1-09-93 10:25   ...    di yi ge wen jian HELLO.C shi yuan wen jian wen ben , zai DOS ti shi fu xia jian ru TYPE HELLO.C ming ling , ke zai ping mu shang xian shi gai wen jian de nei rong 。 ke kan dao gai cheng xu zhi you 42 ge zi jie 。    di er ge wen jian HELLO.OBJ shi Turbo C bian ze cheng xu chan sheng de er jin zhi ji qi zhi ling ( mu biao ma ), jia ru yong DOS ming ling TYPE xian shi gai wen jian , ping mu ke neng hui chu xian hun luan de xin xi 。    di san ge wen jian HELLO.EXE shi Turbo C lian jie cheng xu chan sheng de shi ji ke zhi xing wen jian 。 zai DOS ti shi fu xia jian ru HELLO bing an hui che , ping mu jiang xian shi "Hello, world"。   Turbo C chang yong de bian ji ming ling   Turbo C bian ji cheng xu da yue you 50 tiao ming ling , yong yi yi dong guang biao , an ye cha kan zheng wen , cha zhao bing ti huan zi fu chuan deng 。 ru xia biao suo shi 。    biao 1. Turbo C bian ji cheng xu ming ling   ━━━┳━━━━━━━━━┳━━━━━━━━━━━━━    lei bie ┃ gong neng ┃ mo ren jian   ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━   ┃ zi fu zuo ┃ Ctrl+S huo Left    ji ┃ zi fu you ┃ Ctrl+D huo Right    ben ┃ zi zuo ┃ Ctrl+A    guang ┃ zi you ┃ Ctrl+F    biao ┃ shang xing ┃ Ctrl+E huo Up    yi ┃ xia xing ┃ Ctrl+X huo Down    dong ┃ shang gun ┃ Ctrl+W    ming ┃ xia gun ┃ Ctrl+Z    ling ┃ shang yi ye ┃ Ctrl+R huo PgUp   ┃ xia yi ye ┃ Ctrl+C huo PgDn   ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━    kuai ┃ xing tou ┃ Ctrl+QS huo Home    su ┃ xing yi ┃ Ctrl+QD huo End    guang ┃ chuang kou tou ┃ Ctrl+QE    biao ┃ chuang kou di ┃ Ctrl+QX    yi ┃ wen jian tou ┃ Ctrl+QR    dong ┃ wen jian yi ┃ Ctrl+QC    ming ┃ kuai tou ┃ Ctrl+QB    ling ┃ kuai yi ┃ Ctrl+QK   ┃ shang ci guang biao wei zhi ┃ Ctrl+QP   ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━    shu ┃ cha ru mo shi ┃ Ctrl+V huo Ins    ru ┃ cha ru xing ┃ Ctrl+N    yu ┃ shan chu xing ┃ Ctrl+Y    shan ┃ shan chu zhi xing yi ┃ Ctrl+QY    chu ┃ shan chu guang biao zuo bian zi fu ┃ Ctrl+H huo Backspace    ming ┃ shan chu guang biao chu zi fu ┃ Ctrl+G huo Del    ling ┃ shan chu guang biao you bian zi fu ┃ Ctrl+T   ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━   ┃ biao ji kuai shou ┃ Ctrl+KB   ┃ biao ji kuai yi ┃ Ctrl+KK   ┃ biao ji dan ge zi ┃ Ctrl+KT    kuai ┃ fu zhi kuai ┃ Ctrl+KC    ming ┃ shan chu kuai ┃ Ctrl+KY    ling ┃ kuai qu xiao ┃ Ctrl+KH   ┃ kuai yi dong ┃ Ctrl+KV   ┃ du kuai ┃ Ctrl+KR   ┃ xie kuai ┃ Ctrl+KW   ━━━╋━━━━━━━━━╋━━━━━━━━━━━━━   ┃ yi chang jie shu cao zuo ┃ Ctrl+U huo Ctrl+Break   ┃ zhi biao ┃ Ctrl+L huo Tab    qi ┃ zi dong suo jin ┃ Ctrl+OI   ┃ ding jie fu pei dui ┃ Ctrl+Q[ huo Ctrl+Q]    ta ┃ cha zhao ┃ Ctrl+QF   ┃ cha zhao bing ti huan ┃ Ctrl+QA   ┃ cha zhao biao ji ┃ Ctrl+QN   ┃ tui chu bian ji ┃ Ctrl+KQ   ━━━┻━━━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━━━━━━━━   Turbo C cheng xu de tiao shi    yi ge cheng xu she ji hao le yi hou , tong chang hui you yi xie cuo wu , cha zhao he xiu gai cheng xu zhong de cuo wu shi ling ren tou tong de shi 。Turbo C ji cheng kai fa huan jing ti gong le yi tiao shi zhuang zhi , shi de zhe yi ge gong zuo qing yi le xu duo , cheng xu tiao shi da dao le bian yi he yun xing ji 。    yi 、TC xiao xi chuang kou    shi yong TC zui hao de li you zhi yi shi ta da ying yong hu xiu gai yu fa cuo wu ( bian yi shi ) he ping gu bian yi qi gei chu de jing gao 。TC jiang bian yi qi he lian jie qi fa chu de xiao xi shou ji dao yi huan chong qu zhong , ran hou zai xiao xi chuang kou zhong xian shi , zhe yang zai fang wen yuan dai ma de tong shi , huan neng yi xia kan dao zhe xie xiao xi 。    xian jiang shang mian de HELLO.C zhi zao yi dian yu fa cuo wu , jiang di yi xing bao han yu ju de # qu diao , zai qu diao di wu xing printf yu ju zhong de hou yin hao 。 xian zai cheng xu kan shang qu shi zhe yang de :   include   main()   {   printf("Hello, world\n);   }    an CTRL+F9 chong xin bian yi zhi 。 bian yi chuang kou jiang xian shi you duo shao cuo wu he jing gao : ying wei liang ge cuo wu , 0 ge jing gao 。    dang kan jian bian yi chuang kou zhong de Press anykey ti shi shi , an kong ge jian , xiao xi chuang kou ma shang bei ji huo , liang tiao chu xian zai di yi ge cuo wu huo jing gao shang , zhe shi bian ji chuang kou zhong ye hui you yi liang tiao --- ta biao zhi zhe bian yi qi gei chu de cuo wu huo jing gao zai yuan dai ma zhong de xiang ying wei zhi 。    zhe shi ke yong guang biao jian jiang xiao xi chuang kou zhong de liang tiao shang xia yi dong , zhu chong dao bian ji chuang kou zhong de liang tiao ye sui zhe gen zong yuan dai ma zhong cuo wu fa sheng de wei zhi 。 jia ru jiang liang tiao zhi yu "compile" shang , ze bian ji qi xian shi wen jian de zui hou wei zhi 。    jia ru xiao xi chuang kou tai chang kan bu jian , ke yong zuo 、 you guang biao shui ping gun dong xiao xi , wei le yi ci neng gou duo kan dian xin xi , ke an F5 fang da xiao xi chuang kou 。 fang da hou , bian ji chuang kou bu ke jian le , yin ci bu jin xing cuo wu gen zong 。 xian zai , bao chi fen ping mo shi 。    wei le gai zheng cuo wu , jiang xiao xi chuang kou zhong de liang tiao zhi yu di yi ge cuo wu xiao xi shang , hui che , guang biao yi dao bian ji chuang kou zhong cuo wu chan sheng chu , zhu chong , bian ji qi zhuang tai gei chu suo xuan xiao xi ( zhe zai fang da mo shi xia shi you yong de ) gai zheng zhi 。( jiang di yi xing na zou de # chong xin xie shang )。    dang bu zhi yi ge cuo wu shi , ke yong liang zhong fang fa lai xiu gai xia yi cuo wu 。    di yi zhong fang fa he qian mian yi yang , an F6 hui dao xiao xi chuang kou xuan ze xiang xiu gai de xia yi tiao xiao xi 。    di er zhong fang fa bu yong hui dao xiao xi chuang kou , zhi yao an Alt+F8, bian yi qi jiu hui jiang guang biao yi zhi xiao xi chuang kou zhong lie de xia yi ge cuo wu 。 an Alt+F7 ke yi zhi qian yi ge cuo wu 。    zhe liang zhong fang fa ge you chang duan , shi qing kuang er ding 。 you shi yuan dai ma zhong yi ge yu chun de cuo wu ba bian yi nong hu tu le , chan sheng hao duo xiao xi , zhe shi xuan ze xiu gai di yi tiao xiao xi jiu shi de qi yu de yi xie cuo wu xiao xi mei you shen me yi yi le , zhe zhong qing kuang fa sheng shi , shi yong fang fa yi hui fang bian xie , yi xiu gai wan di yi ge cuo wu zhi hou hui dao xiao xi chuang kou , zai gun dong dao xia yi ge you yi yi de xiao xi shang , xuan ze zhi 。 zai bie de qing kuang xia , an Alt+F8 hui fang bian de duo 。    ji zhu , Alt+F7 he Alt+F8 shi re jian , TC zhong wu lun he shi yun qi zuo yong 。 yin ci zai xiao xi chuang kou zhong an Alt+F8 de dao de bu shi dang qian liang xing xiao xi , er shi xia yi ge xiao xi ( an Enter xuan ze dang qian xiao xi )。    dan jia ru mei bie de bian yi xiao xi , Alt+F8 jiu bu qi zuo yong le 。    zhu : ke yi ru ci fa xuan ze lian jie xiao xi , dan ta men bu gen zong yuan wen jian 。 zai xiu gai yu fa cuo wu de guo cheng dang zhong , jing chang xu yao zeng jia 、 shan chu zheng wen , bian ji qi shi ji zhu de , yi ran neng zheng que ding wei cuo wu wei zhi 。    mei you bi yao ji zhu xing hao he zeng jia 、 shan chu de zheng wen xing 。    er 、Turbo C ji cheng tiao shi qi    yi dan xiu gai hao yu fa cuo wu zhi hou cheng xu bian yi jiu mei shen me wen ti le , dan huan shi ke neng bu an yao qiu yun xing , yin wei ke neng you luo ji cuo wu ( yun xing cuo wu )。 zhe zhong cuo wu gen zong jiu wu zhu yu fa xian cuo wu wei zhi le 。   TC you yi ge ji cheng tiao shi qi ke yi gen zong yun xing cuo wu 。 tong guo tiao shi qi ke yi yun xing , zai duan dian chu zan ting , jian cha bian liang de zhi , shen zhi ke yi gai bian zhi , yi kan cheng xu hui you shen me fan ying 。   Turbo C ji cheng tiao shi qi shi yuan cheng xu ji de tiao shi qi , ji yong tong ni bian xie cheng xu yi yang de " yu yan " lai kong zhi tiao shi qi 。 li ru , wei le xian shi shu zu zhong de yi ge yuan su de zhi , ke gao su tiao shi qi xian shi zhe yang de biao da shi de zhi :   Ctrl+F4 Debug/Eavluate ji suan biao da shi , da ying xiu gai bian liang de zhi 。   Debug/Find Function cha zhao han shu ding yi , xian shi zai bian ji chuang kou zhong 。 jin zai tiao shi shi cai you xiao 。   Ctrl+F3 Debug/Call Stack xian shi tiao yong zhan , ke xian shi ren he han shu de dang qian zhi xing wei zhi , qi fang fa shi zai tiao yong zhan zhong xuan ze xiang ying de han shu ming 。 jin zai tiao shi shi you xiao 。   Debug/Source Debugging kong zhi shi fou da ying tiao shi : zhi wei On shi , ji cheng tiao shi qi he dan du tiao shi qi yun ke yong ; zhi wei   Standalone shi , zhi neng yong dan du tiao shi qi tiao shi , sui ran huan neng zai TC zhong yun xing ; zhi wei None shi , zai .EXE wen jian bu zhi tiao shi xin xi , liang zhong tiao shi yun bu neng tiao shi 。   Ctrl+F4 Break/Watch/Add Watch zeng jia yi jian shi biao da shi 。   Break/Watch/Delete Watch shan chu yi jian shi biao da shi 。   Break/Watch/Edit bian ji yi jian shi biao da shi 。   Break/Watch/Remove All shan chu suo you jian shi biao da shi 。   Watches   Ctrl+F8 Break/Watch/Toggle she zhi huo qing chu guang biao suo zai xing de duan dian 。   Breakpoint   Break/Watch/Clear shan chu cheng xu zhong suo you duan dian 。   Breakpoint   Break/Watch/Next xian shi xia yi duan dian   Breakpoint   ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━       biao 3. tiao shi qi cai dan ming ling ji qi re jian   ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━    re jian cai dan ming ling gong neng   ───────────────────────────────────   F5 zai zheng ping he fen ping zhi jian fang da suo xiao huo dong chuang kou 。   Alt+F5 jiang xian shi zhuan dao yong hu ping , ji ren yi jian fan hui 。   F6 zai bian ji chuang kou yu jian shi chuang kou huo xiao xi chuang kou jian    qie huan 。   Alt+F6 ruo bian ji chuang kou shi huo dong de , zhuan dao zui jin yi ci    zhuang ru bian ji qi de wen jian ; ruo xia mian chuang kou shi huo    dong de , ze zai jian shi chuang kou he xiao xi chuang kou jian qie huan 。   Ctrl+F9 Run/Run tiao shi yun xing huo bu tiao shi yun xing cheng xu , bi yao shi    bian yi 、 lian jie yuan wen jian , ruo bian yi 、 lian jie shi   Debug/Source Debuging he O/C/C/OBJ   Debug Information wei On, ze yun xing cheng xu    dao duan dian huo cheng xu mo yi 。   Project/Remove Messages shan chu xiao xi chuang kou zhong de nei rong 。   ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━    pan ding cheng xu shi fou chu cuo huo zhe wei shen me chu cuo shi bian cheng zhong zui you tiao zhan yi yi de yi fang mian 。 zhe li jian yi ni jin xing yu fang xing she ji , ju ti zuo fa wei :   (1). jiang dai ma xie qing chu dian , ying zuo shi dang suo jin , shi yong wen zi shuo ming he miao shu xing de bian liang ming 。   (2). dai ma ying jian dan , ba jing li fang zai jian dan yu ju zhong de fu duo biao da shi , er bu shi yi xie fu duo yu ju 。Turbo C de dai ma you hua ji zhi jiang da da ti gao dai ma de xiao lv , er qie tiao shi 、 yue du 、 xiu gai qi lai qing yi 。   (3). jin liang yong mu de jian dan 、 hao ding yi de han shu gou jian cheng xu 。 zhe hui bian yu bian zhi tiao shi cheng xu he fen xi jie guo , er qie yue du 、 xiu gai qi lai ye yao qing yi yi xie 。   (4). ying jin liang jian shao ge ge han shu yao qiu de shu ju he gai bian shu ju de yuan su ge shu 。 zhe ye hui bian yu bian zhi ce shi cheng xu he fen xi jie guo ; tong yang bian yu yue du 、 xiu gai cheng xu 。 bing qie huan xian zhi le chu cuo han shu ke neng zao cheng de ju da hun luan de qian she mian , bian de neng zai yi ge tiao shi jie zhong duo yun xing han shu ji ci 。   (5). yao liu xin bian xie cheng xu zhong de gong gong han shu , huo zhe shuo zai qi ta cheng xu zhong ke zai yong de han shu 。    bian xie 、 tiao shi yi ge yi ban xing de han shu tong chang yao bi bian xie 、 tiao shi liang ge huo geng duo de fei fan han shu yao qing yi 。   Turbo C bian yi 、 lian jie he yun xing shi de chang jian cuo wu    yi 、 bian yi shi de chang jian cuo wu   1. shu ju lei xing cuo wu 。 ci lei cuo wu shi chu xue zhe bian cheng shi de chang jian xian xiang , xia mian shi yi xie yao yin qi zhu chong de cuo wu :   (1) suo you bian liang he chang liang bi xu yao jia yi shuo ming 。   (2) bian liang zhi neng fu gei xiang tong lei xing de shu ju 。   (3) dui scanf() yu ju , yong hu ke neng shu ru cuo wu lei xing de shu ju xiang , zhe jiang dao zhi yun xing shi chu cuo , bing bao chu cuo xin xi 。 wei bi mian zhe yang de cuo wu chu xian , ni jiu ti shi yong hu shu ru zheng que lei xing de shu ju 。   (4) zai zhi xing suan shu yun suan shi yao zhu chong :   a. gen ju yu fa gui ze shu xie shuang jing du shu zi 。 yao xie 0.5, er bu shi xie .5; yao xie 1.0, er bu shi 1。 jin guan C yu yan hui zi dong di ba zheng xing zhuan huan cheng shuang jing du xing , dan shu xie shuang jing du xing shi ge hao xi guan 。 rang C yu yan wei ni zuo qiang xing zhuan huan zhe shi yi zhong xiao lv bu gao de cheng xu    she ji feng ge 。 zhe you ke neng dao zhi zhuan huan chan sheng cuo wu 。   b. bu yao yong 0 chu 。 zhe shi yi ge zai nan xing de cuo wu , ta hui dao zhi cheng xu shi bai , bu guan C yu yan de shen me ban ben , dou shi ru ci , zhi xing chu fa yun suan yao fei fan xiao xin 。   c. que bao suo you de shuang jing du shu ( bao kuo na xie cheng xu shu ru yong de shuang jing du shu ) shi zai shi shu fan wei zhi nei 。   d. suo you zheng shu bi xu zai zheng shu da ying de fan wei nei 。 zhe shi yong yu suo you ji suan jie guo , bao kuo zhong jian jie guo 。   2. jiang han shu hou mian de ";" wang diao 。 ci shi cuo wu ti shi se bang jiang ting zai gai yu ju xia de yi xing , bing xian shi :   Statement missing ; in function < han shu ming >   3. gei hong zhi ling ru #include, #define deng yu ju yi jia le ";" hao 。   4. "{" he "}"、"(" he ")"、"/*" he "*/" bu pi pei 。 yin shi se bang jiang wei yu cuo wu suo zai de xing , bing ti shi chu you guan diu diao kuo hao de xin xi 。   5. mei you yong #include zhi ling shuo ming tou wen jian , cuo wu xin xi ti shi you guan gai han shu suo shi yong de shen shu wei ding yi 。   6. shi yong le Turbo C bao liu yao hai zi zuo wei biao shi fu , ci shi jiang ti shi ding yi le tai duo shu ju lei xing 。   7. jiang ding yi bian liang yu ju fang zai le zhi xing yu ju hou mian 。 ci shi hui ti shi yu fa cuo wu 。   8. shi yong le wei ding yi de bian liang , ci shi ping mu xian shi :   Undefined symbol '< bian liang ming >' in function < han shu ming >   9. jing gao cuo wu tai duo 。 hu lue zhe xie jing gao cuo wu bing bu ying xiang cheng xu de zhi xing he jie guo 。 bian yi shi dang jing gao cuo wu shu mu da yu mou yi gui ding zhi shi ( que sheng wei 100) bian tui chu bian yi qi , zhe shi ying gai bian ji cheng kai fa huan jing Options/Compiler/Errors zhong de you guan jing gao cuo wu jian cha kai guan wei off。   10. jiang guan xi fu "==" wu yong zuo fu zhi hao "="。 ci shi ping mu xian shi :   Lvalue required in function < han shu ming >    er 、 lian jie shi de chang jian cuo wu   1. jiang Turbo C ku han shu ming xie cuo 。 zhe zhong qing kuang xia zai lian jie shi jiang hui ren wei ci han shu shi yong hu zi ding yi han shu 。 ci shi ping mu xian shi :   Undefined symbol '< han shu ming >' in < cheng xu ming >   2. duo ge wen jian lian jie shi , mei you zai "Project/Project name zhong zhi ding xiang mu wen jian (.PRJ wen jian ), ci shi chu xian zhao bu dao han shu de cuo wu 。   3. zi han shu zai shuo ming he ding yi shi lei xing bu yi zhi 。   4. cheng xu tiao yong de zi han shu mei you ding yi 。    san 、 yun xing shi de chang jian cuo wu   1. lu jing ming cuo wu 。 zai MS-DOS zhong , xie gang (\) biao shi yi ge mu lu ming ; er zai Turbo C zhong xie gang shi ge mou ge zi fu chuan de yi ge zhuan yi zi fu , zhe yang , zai yong Turbo C zi fu chuan gei chu yi ge lu jing ming shi ying kao lv "\" de zhuan yi de zuo yong 。 li ru , you zhe yang yi tiao yu ju :   file=fopen("c:\new\tbc.dat", "rb");    mu de shi da kai C pan zhong NEW mu lu zhong de TBC.DAT wen jian , dan zuo bu dao 。 zhe li "\" hou mian jin jie de fen bie "n" ji "t", "\n" ji "\t" jiang bei fen bie bian yi wei huan xing ji tab zi fu , DOS jiang ren wei ta shi bu zheng que de wen jian ming er ju jue jie shou , yin wei wen jian ming zhong bu neng he huan xing huo tab zi fu 。 zheng que de xie fa ying wei :   file=fopen("c:\\new\\tbc.dat", "rb");   2. ge shi hua shu ru shu chu shi , gui ding de lei xing yu bian liang ben shen de lei xing bu yi zhi 。 li ru :   float l;   printf("%c", l);   3. scanf() han shu zhong jiang bian liang di zhi xie cheng bian liang 。 li ru :   int l;   scanf("%d", l);   4. xun huan yu ju zhong , xun huan kong zhi bian liang zai mei ci xun huan wei jin xing xiu gai , shi xun huan cheng wei wu xian xun huan 。   5. switch yu ju zhong mei you shi yong break yu ju 。   6. jiang fu zhi hao "=" wu yong zuo guan xi fu "=="。   7. duo ceng tiao jian yu ju de if he else bu pei dui 。   8. yong dong tai nei cun fen pei han shu malloc() huo calloc() fen pei de nei cun qu shi yong wan zhi hou , wei yong free() han shu shi fang , hui dao zhi han shu qian ji ci tiao yong zheng chang , er hou mian tiao yong shi fa sheng si ji xian xiang , bu neng fan hui cao zuo xi tong 。 qi yuan yin shi yin wei mei yong kong jian ke gong fen pei , er zhan yong le cao zuo xi tong zai nei cun zhong de mou xie kong jian 。   9. shi yong le dong tai fen pei nei cun bu cheng gong de zhi zhen , zao cheng xi tong po huai 。   10. zai dui wen jian cao zuo shi , mei you zai shi yong wan ji shi guan bi da kai de wen jian 。
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