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C yu yan de chang yong ku han shu shi yong fang fa fen xi ji yong tu

2008-06-01 02:07:13 编辑來源:互联网 评论
 
 
 
本文为【C语言的常用库函数使用方法分析及用途】的拼音翻译版
  absread() du ci pan jue dui shan qu han shu
  yuan xing :int absread(int drive,int num,int sectnum,void *buf)
  gong neng : cong drive zhi ding de qu dong qi ci pan shang ,sectnum zhi ding de luo ji shan qu hao kai shi du qu ( tong guo DOS zhong duan 0x25 du qu )num ge ( zui duo 64K ge ) shan qu de nei rong , chu cun yu buf suo zhi de huan chong qu zhong 。
  shen shu :drive=0 dui ying A pan ,drive=1 dui ying B pan 。
  fan hui zhi :0: cheng gong ;-1: shi bai 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  abswrite() xie ci pan jue dui shan qu han shu
  yuan xing :int abswrite(int drive,int nsects,int lsect,void *buffer)
  drive=0(A qu dong qi )、1(B qu dong qi )、
  nsects= yao xie de shan qu shu ( zui duo 64K ge );
  lsect= qi shi luo ji shan qu hao ;
  buffer= yao xie ru shu ju de nei cun qi shi di zhi 。
  gong neng : jiang zhi ding nei rong xie ru ( tiao yong DOS zhong duan 0x26) ci pan shang de zhi ding shan qu , ji shi xie ru de di fang shi ci pan de luo ji jie gou 、 wen jian 、FAT biao he mu lu jie gou suo zai de shan qu , ye zhao chang jin xing 。
  fan hui zhi :0: cheng gong ;-1: shi bai 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  atof() jiang zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng fu dian shu de han shu
  yuan xing :double atof(const char *s)
  gong neng : ba s suo zhi xiang de zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng double lei xing 。
  s ge shi wei : fu hao shu zi . shu zi E fu hao shu zi
  fan hui zhi : zi fu chuan de zhuan huan zhi 。
  tou wen jian :math.h、stdlib.h
  atoi() jiang zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng zheng xing shu de han shu
  yuan xing :int atoi(const char *s)
  gong neng : ba s suo zhi xiang de zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng int lei xing 。
  s ge shi wei : fu hao shu zi
  fan hui zhi : zi fu chuan de zhuan huan zhi 。 ruo chu cuo ze fan hui 0。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  atol() jiang zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng chang zheng xing shu de han shu
  yuan xing :long atol(const char *s)
  gong neng : ba s suo zhi xiang de zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng long int lei xing 。
  s ge shi wei : fu hao shu zi
  fan hui zhi : zi fu chuan de zhuan huan zhi 。 ruo chu cuo ze fan hui 0。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  bcd() ba yi ge shu zhuan huan cheng dui ying de BCD ma de han shu
  yuan xing :bcd bcd(int x)
  bcd bcd(double x)
  bcd bcd(double x,int decimals)
  zhu chong :BCD ma de jing du ke da 17 wei 。 shen shu decimals shi ke xuan de , yong lai zhi ding zhuan huan hou xiao shu dian hou de wei shu 。
  tou wen jian :bcd.h
  bdos()
  yuan xing ∶int bdos(int fnum,unsigned dx,unsigned al)
  qi zhong fnum shi xi tong tiao yong hao ;dx shi chuan gei ji cun qi DX de zhi ;al shi chuan gei ji cun qi AL de zhi ;
  gong neng ∶DOS xi tong tiao yong (INT21H)
  fan hui zhi ∶AX zhong de zhi
  biosdisk() tiao yong BIOS ci pan qu dong cheng xu han shu
  yuan xing :char biosdisk(int cmd,int drive,int head,int track,int sector,int nsects,void *buffer)
  gong neng : shi yong zhong duan 0x13, zhi jie tiao yong BIOS jin xing ci pan cao zuo
  shen shu :(1)cmd:
  2- shu ju yi mei shan qu 512 zi jie de ge shi du ru buffer, qi shi shan qu you head、track he sector ding , shan qu shu you nsects ding 。
  3- jiang buffer zhong de shu ju an mei shan qu 512 zi jie xie ru ci pan 。
  4- dui shan qu jin xing shu ju xiao yan 。
  6- ge shi hua yi ge ci pan bing dui hua shan qu she zhi hua biao zhi 。
  8- fan hui dang qian qu dong qi shen shu zai buffer de qian 4 ge zi jie zhong 。
  10- chang du , mei shan qu du ru 512 zi jie jia shang e wai de 4 ge zi jie 。
  11- chang xie , mei shan qu xie ru 512 zi jie jia shang e wai de 4 ge zi jie 。
  (2)drive:0- di yi ge ruan qu ;1- di er ge ruan qu ;0x80- di yi ge ying qu
  (3)head: ci tou
  (4)track: ci dao
  (5)sector: shan qu
  (6)nsects: shan qu shu
  (7)buffer: shu ju huan chong qu , ding yi wei unsigned char buffer[];
  fan hui zhi :0x00- cao zuo cheng gong
  0x01- cuo wu ming ling
  0x03- qi tu xie ju you xie bao hu de ci pan
  0x07- qu dong qi shen shu she zhi cuo wu
  0x10- ci pan du /CRC/ECC cuo wu
  tou wen jian :bios.h
  zhu : dui yu ying pan zhu yin dao ji lu shan qu head=0,track=0,sector=1
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  biosprint() tiao yong BIOS da yin ji I/O jie kou de han shu
  yuan xing :int biosprint(int cmd,int abyte,int port)
  gong neng : tong guo BIOS zhong duan 0x17 zai you shen shu port zhi ding de da yin ji shang wan cheng ge zhong da yin ji gong neng 。
  port=0(LPT1)
  =1(LPT2);
  
  
  cmd=0( da yin zi fu abyte)
  1( chu shi hua da yin ji duan kou )
  2( du da yin ji zhuang tai );
  abyte=0-255;
  fan hui zhi : da yin ji zhuang tai
  wei 0( she bei chao shi ); wei 3(I/O chu cuo ); wei 4( da yin ji yi xuan ze ); wei 5( mei zhi ); wei 6( da yin ji que ren ); wei 7( bu mang )
  tou wen jian :bios.h
  calloc() fen pei nei cun han shu
  yuan xing :void *calloc(size_t nitems,size_t size)
  gong neng : zai dui zhong fen pei yi kuai nei cun , jiang gai nei cun de nei rong quan bu qing 0。
  fan hui zhi : fan hui zhi xiang xin fen pei nei cun de zhi zhen 。 kong jian bu gou ze fan hui NULL。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h、calloc.h
  ceil()
  yuan xing ∶double ceil(double num)
  gong neng ∶ qiu bu xiao yu num de zui xiao shuang jing du zheng shu
  tou wen jian ∶math.h
  cgets() du zi fu chuan han shu
  yuan xing :char *cgets(char *str)
  gong neng : cong kong zhi tai du ru yi ge zi fu chuan , bing jiang gai zi fu chuan ( he zi fu chuan chang du ) cun ru you str suo zhi xiang de di zhi zhong 。
  zhu chong : zai tiao yong cgets zhi qian , bi xu jiang yao du ru de zi fu chuan zui da chang du cun ru str[0] zhong , fan hui shi str[1] bei she zhi wei shi ji du ru de zi fu shu 。 shi ji zi fu chuan nei rong cong str[2] kai shi , yi kong zi fu (\0) jie yi 。
  fan hui zhi : zhi xiang str[2] de zhi zhen 。
  tou wen jian :conio.h
  chdir() gai bian dang qian mu lu de han shu
  yuan xing :int chdir(const char *path)
  gong neng : ba you path zhi ding de mu lu gai wei dang qian mu lu 。path shen shu zhong ke yi zhi ding qu dong qi hao , ru “a:\\ddd”, dan zhi shi gai bian gai qu dong qi shang de dang qian mu lu , dui dang qian huo dong qu dong qi shang de dang qian mu lu wu ying xiang 。
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  _chmod() gai bian wen jian cun qu quan xian de han shu
  yuan xing :int _chmod(const char *path,int func[,int attrib])
  gong neng : du qu (func=0 shi ) huo she zhi (func=1 shi )DOS wen jian shu xing 。
  attrib=FA_RDONLY zhi du
  attrib=FA_HIDDEN yin cang wen jian
  attrib=FA_SYSTEM xi tong wen jian
  attrib=FA_LABLE juan biao
  attrib=FA_DIREC mu lu
  attrib=FA_ARCH dang an
  fan hui zhi : shi bai shi fan hui -1。 cheng gong shi fan hui wen jian de shu xing zi jie , jia ru fan hui zhi &FA_RDONLY bu deng yu 0, ze wen jian shi zhi du wen jian ;......
  tou wen jian :io.h、dos.h
  chmod() gai bian wen jian cun qu quan xian de han shu
  yuan xing :int chmod(const char *path,int amode)
  gong neng : gen ju amode de zhi , she zhi you path suo zhi wen jian de cun qu quan xian 。
  amode de zhi cun qu quan xian
  S_IWRITE da ying xie
  S_IREAD da ying du ( zhi du )
  S_IREADS_IWRITE ke du ke xie
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )
  tou wen jian :io.h、sys\stat.h
  clock()
  yuan xing ∶long clock(void)
  gong neng ∶ ce de cong cheng xu kai shi dao tiao yong chu chu li ji suo yong de shi jian
  tou wen jian ∶time.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   close() guan bi wen jian han shu
  yuan xing :int close(int handle)
  
  
  gong neng : guan bi you wen jian ju bing suo zhi xiang de wen jian , ju bing shi tiao yong _creat、creat、creatnew、creattemp、dup、dup2、_open huo open shi de dao de 。 gai han shu bing bu zai wen jian mo yi xie yi ge Ctrl-Z zi fu , jia ru xiang yong gai zi fu jie shu wen jian , bi xu xian shi di gei chu gai zi fu 。
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )
  tou wen jian :io.h
  closegraph() guan bi tu xing han shu
  yuan xing :void far closegraph(void)
  gong neng : shi fang tu xing xi tong fen pei de suo you nei cun , jiang ping mu hui fu dao tiao yong initgraph zhi qian de mo shi 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  cos()
  yuan xing ∶double cos(double arg)
  gong neng ∶ ji suan arg( hu du ) de yu xian zhi
  tou wen jian ∶math.h
  ctrlbrk() she zhi ctrl-break chu li cheng xu de han shu
  yuan xing :void ctrlbrk(int(*handle)(void))
  gong neng : xiu gai zhong duan xiang liang 0x23, shi yong xin de ctrl-break zhong duan chu li han shu 。
  yong fa :ctrlbrk( han shu ming );
  xian ding yi han shu :int han shu ming (void){...}
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  delay() zan ting han shu
  yuan xing :void delay(unsigned milliseconds)
  gong neng : zan ting dang qian suo zhi xing de cheng xu milliseconds hao miao 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  disable() ping bi zhong duan de hong
  yuan xing :void disble(void)
  gong neng : ping bi zhong duan , zhi da ying cong wai bu she bei lai de bu ke ping bi zhong duan (NMI)。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  enable() kai ying jian zhong duan de hong
  yuan xing :void enable(void)
  gong neng : kai fang zhong duan , da ying jie shou ren he she bei chan sheng de zhong duan 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  exec() jia zai bing yun xing qi ta cheng xu de han shu zu
  execl(),execle(),execlp(),execlpe(),
  execv(),execve(),execvp(),execvpe()
  yuan xing ∶ int execl(char *path,char *arg0,*arg1,...,*argn,NULL)
  int execle(char *path,char *arg0,*arg1,...,*argn,NULL,char **env)
  int execlp(char *path,char *arg0,*arg1,...,*argn,NULL)
  int execlpe(char *path,char *arg0,*arg1,...,*argn,NULL,char **env)
  int execv(char *path,char *argv[])
  int execve(char *path,char *argv[],char **env)
  int execvp(char *path,char *argv[])
  int execvpe(char *path,char *argv[],char **env)
  qi zhong ,path shi tiao yong de zi cheng xu de wen jian ming , zai exec hou mian de hou zhui ju you mou zhong gong neng :
  p biao shi han shu neng gou zai you DOS huan jing bian liang PATH de mu lu zhong sou suo zi jin cheng wen jian , jia ru path zhong wei zhi ming wen jian suo zai mu lu , han shu jiang shou xian zai dang qian mu lu zhong zhao , ran hou zai DOS huan jing bian liang zhi ding de mu lu zhong zhao 。
  l biao shi shen shu zhi zhen (arg0,...,argn) an dan du shen shu chuan song 。 dang yu xian zhi dao yao chuan song de shen shu ge shu shi , tong chang yong dai hou zhui l de han shu 。
  v biao shi shen shu zhi zhen (arg0,...,argn) an zhi zhen shu zu chuan song 。 dang yao chuan song de shen shu ke bian shi , shi yong dai hou zhui v de han shu 。
  e biao shi shen shu env ke yi chuan song dao zi jin cheng , gai han shu ke yong lai xiu gai zi jin cheng de huan jing 。 ruo wu e hou zhui , zi jin cheng jiang ji xu fu jin cheng de huan jing 。
  zhu chong :arg0+...+argn, huo arg[0]+...+arg[n] de zong chang du bi xu xiao yu 128 zi jie 。 dang tiao yong exec han shu shi , yuan xian yi jing da kai de wen jian zai zi jin cheng zhong reng ran shi da kai de 。
  gong neng : jia zai bing yun xing qi ta cheng xu , tiao yong shi bi xu you zu gou de nei cun kong jian yong yu jia zai he zhi xing zi cheng xu , zi cheng xu jiang fu gai fu cheng xu 。
  tou wen jian :process.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  farcalloc() cong yuan dui zhong fen pei nei cun de han shu
  yuan xing :void far *farcalloc(unsigned long nunits,unsigned long unitsz)
  gong neng : cong yuan dui zhong wei bao han nunits ge yuan su de shu zu fen pei nei cun , mei yi qu unitsz zi jie chang 。
  yong fa :fptr=farcalloc( shu mu ,sizeof(char));
  
  
  xian ding yi :char far *fptr;
  zhu chong : suo you ke yong RAM neng bei fen pei ; da yu 64K de kuai neng bei fen pei ; yong yuan zhi zhen cun qu gai kuai 。 wei mo shi bu neng yong 。
  fan hui zhi : fan hui zhi xiang xin fen pei kuai de zhi zhen , ruo nei cun bu gou , ze fan hui NULL。
  tou wen jian :alloc.h
  farfree() cong yuan dui zhong shi fang yi kuai yi fen pei nei cun de han shu
  yuan xing :void farfree(void far *block)
  tou wen jian :alloc.h
  farmalloc() cong yuan dui zhong fen pei nei cun de han shu
  yuan xing :void far *farmalloc(unsigned long nbytes)
  shi yong fang shi :fptr=farmalloc( zi jie shu );
  xian ding yi char far *fptr;
  gong neng : cong yuan dui zhong fen pei chang nbytes zi jie de nei cun 。
  zhu chong : suo you ke yong RAM neng bei fen pei ; da yu 64K de kuai neng bei fen pei ; yong yuan zhi zhen cun qu gai kuai 。 wei mo shi bu neng yong 。
  fan hui zhi : fan hui zhi xiang xin fen pei nei cun de zhi zhen , ruo nei cun bu gou , ze fan hui NULL。
  tou wen jian :alloc.h
  farrealloc() tiao zheng yuan dui zhong yi fen pei kuai de han shu
  yuan xing :void far *farrealloc(void far *oldblock,unsigned long nbytes)
  fan hui zhi : fan hui tiao zheng hou de xin nei cun di zhi 。 ruo bu neng chong xin fen pei , ze fan hui NULL。
  tou wen jian :alloc.h
  fclose() guan bi yi ge liu han shu
  yuan xing :int fclose(FILE *stream)
  shi yong fang shi :fclose( wen jian zhi zhen ming ); qi zhong wen jian zhi zhen ming =fopen();
  gong neng : guan bi zhi ding de liu , guan bi qian qing chu suo you yu stream xiang lian de huan chong qu , shi fang xi tong fen pei de huan chong qu , dan you setbuf she zhi de huan chong qu bu neng zi dong shi fang 。
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );EOF( shi bai )
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  fcloseall() guan bi da kai de liu de han shu
  yuan xing :int fcloseall(void)
  gong neng : guan bi suo you da kai de liu , you stdin、stdout、stdprn、stderr he stdaux she zhi de liu chu wai 。
  fan hui zhi : guan bi liu de zong shu 。 jia ru fa xian cuo wu ze fan hui EOF。
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  feof() jian cha wen jian shi fou jie shu de han shu
  yuan xing ∶int feof(FILE *fp)
  fan hui zhi ∶ wen jian jie shu fan hui fei 0 zhi , fou ze fan hui 0。
  tou wen jian ∶stdio.h
  fgets() cong liu zhong du qu yi zi fu chuan de han shu
  yuan xing :char *fgets(char s[],int n,FILE *stream)
  shi yong ge shi :fgets( zi fu chuan zhi zhen , zi fu ge shu , wen jian zhi zhen )
  gong neng : cong shu ru liu stream zhong du ru zi fu cun dao s chuan zhong 。 dang du le n-1 ge zi fu huo peng dao huan xing fu shi , han shu ting zhi du guo cheng 。fgets zai s chuan yi bao liu huan xing zi fu 。 du ru de zui hou yi ge zi fu hou mian jia yi ge kong zi fu 。
  fan hui zhi : cheng gong shi fan hui zi fu chuan shen shu s, chu cuo huo peng dao wen jian jie shu shi , fan hui NULL。
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  findfirst() han shu he findnext() han shu
  tiao yong fang shi : zheng xing shu =findfirst( wen jian ming ,& jie gou bian liang ming , shu xing chang shu zu he ( ru 0x26)); qi zhong ding yi strUCt ffblk jie gou bian liang ming ;
  yuan xing :int findfirst(path,buffer,attr) he int findnext(buffer)
  char *path;// yao jian suo de wen jian ming
  struct ffblk
  {
  char ff_reserved[21];
  char ff_attrib;// bei jian suo de wen jian shu xing
  unsigned ff_ftime;// zui hou xiu gai de shi jian
  //(0-4 wei : miao shu /2;5-10 wei : fen shu ;11-15 wei : xiao shi shu )
  unsigned ff_fdate;// zui hou xiu gai de ri qi
  //(0-4 wei : ri ;5-8 wei : yue ;9-15 wei : nian jian 1980)
  long ff_fsize;// wen jian da xiao
  char ff_name[13];// zu ming
  }*buffer;
  int attr;// yao jian suo de wen jian shu xing
  gong neng : jian suo you path he attr zhi ding de wen jian , ba jie guo fan hui dao buffer。findfirst fan hui guan yu di yi ge zhi ding wen jian de xin xi ,findnext ji xu jian suo 。
  fan hui zhi :0( jian suo cheng gong ),-1( mei you zhao dao zhi ding de wen jian )
  shu xing chang shu :
  FA_NORMAL(0x00) han yi :Normal file, no attributes
  FA_RDONLY(0x01) han yi : zhi du
  FA_HIDDEN(0x02) han yi : yin han wen jian
  FA_SYSTEM(0x04) han yi : xi tong wen jian
  FA_LABEL(0x08) han yi : juan biao
  FA_DIREC(0x10) han yi : zi mu lu
  FA_ARCH(0x20) han yi : xiu gai de wen jian Archive
  tou wen jian :dir.h(dos.h)
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   floodfill() tian chong qu yu de han shu
  yuan xing :void far floodfill(int x,int y,int border)
  
  
  gong neng : zai tu xing she bei shang yong yan se border wei qi lai de qu yu jiang yong dang qian tian chong yan se tian chong 。(x,y) shi dai tian chong qu yu de qi dian , ruo qi dian zai feng bi qu yu nei , ze qu yu nei bei tian chong ; ruo qi dian zai feng bi qu yu wai , ze qu yu wai bei tian chong 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  floor()
  yuan xing ∶double floor(double num)
  gong neng ∶ qiu bu da yu num de zui da shuang jing du zheng shu
  tou wen jian ∶math.h
  fnmerge() jian li wen jian lu jing han shu
  yuan xing :void fnmerge(char *path,const char *drive,const char *dir, const char *name,const char *ext)
  gong neng : he cheng drive:\dir\name.ext, fang zai path
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  fnsplit() fen jie wan zheng de lu jing ming han shu
  yuan xing :int fnsplit(char *path,const char *drive,const char *dir,const char *name,const char *ext)
  gong neng : ba wen jian ming lu jing path fen cheng 4 ge bu fen cun fang 。
  qi zhong drive zhong you mao hao ;dir zhong you kai shi he jie yi de fan xie gang ;ext bao kuo kai shi yuan dian
  fan hui zhi : jia ru you kuo zhan ming , ze fan hui zhi &EXTENSION!=0
  jia ru you wen jian ming , ze fan hui zhi &FILENAME!=0
  jia ru you mu lu ming , ze fan hui zhi &DirectorY!=0
  jia ru you qu dong qi hao , ze fan hui zhi &DIRVE!=0
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  fopen() da kai yi ge liu han shu
  yuan xing :FILE *fopen(const char *filename,const char *mode)
  gong neng : da kai yong filename zhi ding de wen jian , bing shi qi yu yi ge liu xiang lian 。
  shi yong fang shi : wen jian zhi zhen ming =fopen(" wen jian ming "," chu li fang shi ")
  " chu li fang shi " qu :
  "rt" da kai yi ge wen ben wen jian , zhi neng du 。
  "wt" sheng cheng yi ge wen ben wen jian , zhi neng xie 。 ruo wen jian cun zai ze bei chong xie 。
  "at" da kai yi ge wen ben wen jian , zhi neng zai wen jian yi bu tian jia 。
  "rb" da kai yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , zhi neng du 。
  "wb" sheng cheng yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , zhi neng xie 。
  "ab" da kai yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , zhi neng zai wen jian yi bu tian jia 。
  "rt+" da kai yi ge wen ben wen jian , ke du ke xie 。
  "wt+" sheng cheng yi ge wen ben wen jian , ke du ke xie 。
  "at+" da kai yi ge wen ben wen jian , ke du ke tian jia 。
  "rb+" da kai yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , ke du ke xie 。
  "wb+" sheng cheng yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , ke du ke xie 。
  "ab+" da kai yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , ke du ke tian jia 。
  fan hui zhi : zhi ming liu de zhi zhen ( cheng gong shi ) huo NULL( shi bai shi )
  zhu : xu xian ding yi FILE * wen jian zhi zhen ming ;
  " wen jian ming " ruo yong argv[1] dai ti , ze ke shi yong ming ling xing xing shi zhi ding wen jian ming
  FP_OFF() huo qu yuan di zhi pian yi liang de hong
  yuan xing :unsigned FP_OFF(void far *p)
  gong neng : qu de he she zhi yuan zhi zhen *p de pian yi liang
  fan hui zhi : pian yi liang
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  fprintf() chuan song shu chu dao yi ge liu zhong de han shu
  yuan xing :int fprintf(FILE *stream,const char *format[,argument,...])
  gong neng :① xiang wen jian zhi zhen zhi xiang de wen jian shu chu ASCⅡ dai ma
  ② xiang xian shi qi shu chu cuo wu xin xi
  shi yong xing shi :
  ①fprintf( wen jian zhi zhen ," shu chu ge shi ", shu chu xiang xi lie );
  ②fprintf(stderr," cuo wu xin xi ");
  shi yong shi li :fprintf(stream,"%d %c %f",i,c,f);
  qi zhong ding yi FILE *stream;
  int i;char c;float f;
  fan hui zhi : cheng gong ze fan hui shu chu de zi jie shu , cuo wu ze fan hui EOF。
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  FP_SEG() huo qu yuan di zhi duan zhi de hong
  yuan xing :unsigned FP_SEG(void far *p)
  gong neng : qu de he she zhi yuan zhi zhen *p duan di zhi zhi
  fan hui zhi : duan di zhi zhi
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  free() shi fang yi fen pei nei cun de han shu
  yuan xing :void free(void *block)
  
  
  gong neng : shi fang you calloc、malloc、realloc han shu tiao yong suo fen pei de nei cun 。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h、alloc.h
  fscanf() ge shi hua shu ru han shu
  yuan xing :int fscanf(FILE *stream,const char *format[,address,...])
  gong neng : cong yi ge liu zhong sao miao shu ru zi duan , yi ci sao miao yi ge zi fu , mei ge shu ru zi duan gen ju format suo zhi ge shi zhi shi fu ge shi hua hou , ba shu ru zi duan cun zai format hou mian you di zhi shen shu gei chu de wei zhi shang 。
  shi yong ge shi :fscanf( wen jian zhi zhen ," shu ru ge shi ", shu ru xiang xi lie );
  shi yong shi li :fscanf(fp,"%d",&b);
  cong fp zhi xiang de wen jian zhong du qu shi jin zhi zheng shu (ASCⅡ xing shi ) fu yu bian liang b
  zhu : dang wen jian zhi zhen shi stdin shi , yu scanf gong neng wan quan xiang tong
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  fseek() yi dong wen jian zhi zhen han shu
  yuan xing :int fseek(FILE *stream,long offset,int whence)
  zuo yong : qiang zhi yi ge wen jian de wei zhi zhi zhen zhi xiang mou ge te ding de wei zhi ( shen zhi chao chu wen jian de yi bu )。
  shi yong ge shi :fseek(* wen jian zhi zhen , pian yi ( chang zheng xing ), qi dian )
  ding yi FILE * wen jian zhi zhen ming ;
  " qi dian " qu zhi :
  0 huo SEEK_SET( biao shi wen jian kai tou )
  1 huo SEEK_CUR( biao shi dang qian wei zhi )
  2 huo SEEK_END( biao shi wen jian yi duan )
  fan hui zhi :0 biao shi cheng gong , fei 0 zhi biao shi shi bai
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  fwrite() ba shen shu xie ru liu zhong de han shu
  yuan xing :size_t fwrite(const void *ptr,size_t size,size_t n,FILE *stream)
  gong neng : fu jia n ge shu ju xiang ( mei ge shu ju xiang chang du wei size ge zi jie ) dao zhi ding de shu chu wen jian hou , shu ju cong ptr chu kai shi tian jia 。ptr shi zhi xiang ren yi dui xiang de zhi zhen 。
  fan hui zhi : tiao yong cheng gong shi fan hui shi ji xie de shu ju xiang shu , chu cuo shi fan hui yi duan zheng xing shu zhi 。
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  li :fwrite(&s,sizeof(s),1,stream);
  qi zhong s shi yi jie gou bian liang ,stream=fopen();
  gcvt() ba shuang jing du shu zhuan hua cheng zi fu chuan de han shu
  yuan xing ∶char*gcvt(value,ndigit,buf)
  qi zhong ∶double value shi dai zhuan hua shu
  int ndigit shi zhuan hua chang du
  char *buf bao cun zhuan hua hou de di zhi
  tou wen jian ∶stdlib.h
  geninterrupt() zhi xing zhong duan han shu
  yuan xing :void geninterrupt(int n)
  tiao yong fang shi :geninterrupt( ruan zhong duan hao )
  gong neng : chan sheng yi ge 8086 ruan zhong duan
  zhu : xu xian xiang ji cun qi chuan di ru kou xin xi ( yong wei bian liang )
  li ru wei bian liang = yao fu de zhi ( ru kou xin xi );
  tiao yong geninterrupt() han shu hou de jie shou chu kou xin xi
  li ru bian liang ming = wei bian liang
  wei bian liang ∶Turbo C da ying shi yong wei bian liang zhi jie fang wen xiang ying de 8086 ji cun qi 。 wei bian liang de lei xing you liang zhong 。
  ① unsigned int : _AX、 _BX、 _CX、 _DX、 _CS、 _DS、 _SS、 _ES、_SP、 _BP、 _DI、 _SI
  ② unsigned char: _AL、 _AH、 _BL、 _BH、 _CL、 _CH、 _DL、 _DH
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   getc() cong liu zhong qu zi fu de hong
  yuan xing :int getc(FILE *stream)
  gong neng : fan hui shu ru liu stream zhong yi ge zi fu , yi dong wen jian zhi zhen shi zhi zhi xiang xia yi ge zi fu 。
  shi yong ge shi : zi fu bian liang =getc( wen jian zhi zhen )
  ( zheng chang qing kuang xia du qu dao dai ma zhi , du dao wen jian yi huo chu cuo shi fan hui EOF)
  
  
  zhu : xu ding yi char zi fu bian liang ;FILE * wen jian zhi zhen ;
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  getch() cong jian pan wu hui xian di du qu yi zi fu de han shu
  gong neng : jiang jian pan shang shu ru de dan ge zi fu de zhi (ASCⅡ ma ) ma shang fu gei zi fu xing bian liang
  tiao yong fang shi : zi fu xing bian liang =getch()
  zhu : xu xian ding yi char zi fu xing bian liang ;
  tou wen jian :conio.h
  getchar() cong stdin liu zhong du qu yi ge zi fu de han shu
  gong neng : jiang jian pan shang shu ru de dan ge zi fu de zhi (ASCⅡ ma ) hui che hou fu gei zi fu xing bian liang
  tiao yong fang shi : zi fu xing bian liang =getchar()
  zhu : xu xian ding yi char zi fu xing bian liang ;
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  getcurdir() du qu zhi ding qu dong qi de dang qian mu lu de han shu
  yuan xing :int getcurdir(int drive,char directory)
  drive=0( que sheng );1(A qu dong qi );...
  directory yong lai cun fang mu lu ming , bu bao kuo qu dong qi ming , bu yi fan xie gang kai shi 。
  fan hui zhi :0( tiao yong cheng gong );1( chu cuo )
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  getcwd() du qu dang qian mu lu de han shu
  yuan xing :char *getcwd(char *buf,int buflen)
  gong neng : du qu dang qian mu lu de wan zheng lu jing ming ( bao kuo qu dong qi ming ), zui chang wei buflen ge zi jie , cun fang zai buf zhong 。 jia ru buf wei NULL, han shu jiang fen pei yi ge buflen zi jie chang de huan chong qu , yi hou ke jiang ben han shu de fan hui zhi zuo wei free han shu de shen shu lai shi fang gai huan chong qu 。
  fan hui zhi : ruo buf fei kong , tiao yong cheng gong fan hui buf, chu cuo fan hui NULL; ruo buf wei NULL, fan hui zhi xiang yi jing fen pei de nei cun huan chong qu di zhi 。
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  getdate() du qu xi tong ri qi han shu
  yuan xing :void getdate(pdate)
  struct date
  {
  int da_year;
  int da_day;
  int da_mon;
  };
  struct date *pdate;
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  getdfree() du qu ci pan kong xian kong jian de han shu
  yuan xing :void getdfree(drive,dtable)
  unsigned char drive; qu dong qi hao (0- dang qian ;1-A;2-B;...)
  struct dfree
  {
  unsigned df_avail;// ke shi yong de cu shu
  unsigned df_total;// mei ge qu dong qi de cu shu
  unsigned df_bsec;// mei ge shan qu de zi jie shu
  unsigned df_sclus;// mei ge cu de shan qu shu ( chu cuo shi fan hui 0xffff)
  }*dtable;
  gong neng : ba you drive zhi ding de guan yu qu dong qi de xin xi fan hui dao dtable
  getdisk() du qu dang qian ci pan qu dong qi hao han shu
  yuan xing :int getdisk(void)
  gong neng : qu de dang qian qu dong qi hao (0=A;1=B;....)
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  getenv() du qu huan jing bian liang de dang qian zhi de han shu
  yuan xing :char *getenv(const char *name)
  yong fa :s=getenv(" huan jing bian liang ming ");
  xu xian ding yi char *s;
  
  
  gong neng : fan hui yi gei ding de huan jing bian liang zhi , huan jing bian liang ming ke da xie huo xiao xie 。 jia ru zhi ding de bian liang zai huan jing zhong wei ding yi , ze fan hui yi kong chuan 。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  getimage() jiang zhi ding qu yu de wei tu xiang cun ru nei cun de han shu
  yuan xing :void far getimage(int left,int top,int right,int bottom,void far *bitmap)
  gong neng : jiang tu xiang ( ju xing qu yu ) cong ping mu kao bei dao nei cun ,*bitmap zhi xiang nei cun zhong cun fang tu xiang de qu yu 。 gai qu yu de qian liang ge zi jie yong yu cun fang ju xing de gao he kuan 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  getmaxx() fan hui ping mu shang zui da de X zuo biao zhi de han shu
  yuan xing :int far getmaxx(void)
  gong neng : fan hui dang qian tu xing qu dong cheng xu he tu xing mo shi xia zui da de X zuo biao zhi 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  getmaxy() fan hui ping mu shang zui da de Y zuo biao zhi de han shu
  yuan xing :int far getmaxy(void)
  gong neng : fan hui dang qian tu xing qu dong cheng xu he tu xing mo shi xia zui da de Y zuo biao zhi 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  getpixel() du qu xiang su yan se de han shu
  yuan xing :unsigned far getpixel(int x,int y)
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  getpsp()
  yuan xing ∶unsigned getpsp(void)
  gong neng ∶ shi yong DOS xi tong tiao yong 0x62, fan hui cheng xu duan qian zhui (PSP) de duan di zhi
  tou wen jian ∶dos.h
  gets() cong biao zhun shu ru liu stdio zhong du qu yi zi fu chuan de han shu
  gong neng : jiang jian pan shang shu ru de zi fu chuan ma shang fu yu zi fu chuan bian liang bing xian shi chu lai
  tiao yong fang shi :gets( zi fu chuan bian liang ming )
  zhu : xu ding yi char * zi fu chuan bian liang ming ;
  gettime() du qu xi tong shi jian de han shu
  yuan xing :void gettime(ptime)
  struct time
  {
  unsigned char ti_min;
  unsigned char ti_hour;
  unsigned char ti_hund;// bai fen zhi yi miao
  unsigned char ti_sec;
  };
  struct time *ptime;
  getvect() du qu zhong duan xiang liang han shu
  yuan xing :void interrupt(*getvect(int interruptno))
  gong neng : du ru you interruptno(0-255 zhi jian ) suo zhi ding de zhong duan xiang liang zhi , bing ba gai zhong duan xiang liang zhi zuo wei zhong duan han shu de yuan zhi zhen fan hui 。
  fan hui zhi : zhi ding zhong duan xiang liang de dang qian 4 zi jie zhi 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  shi yong shi li :oldfunc=getvect(5);
  xian ding yi void interrupt(*oldfunc)();
  yong hou hui fu setvect(5,oldfunc);
  getx() fan hui dang qian tu xing fang shi xia wei zhi de X zuo biao zhi de han shu
  yuan xing :int far getx(void);
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  gety() fan hui dang qian tu xing fang shi xia wei zhi de Y zuo biao zhi de han shu
  yuan xing :int far gety(void);
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  imagesize() fan hui bao cun tu xiang huan chong qu da xiao de han shu
  yuan xing :unsigned far imagesize(int left,int top,int right,int bottom)
  gong neng : que ding bao cun tu xiang suo xu de cun chu qu da xiao 。
  fan hui zhi : fan hui cun chu qu de da xiao ( zi jie ), ruo suo xu nei cun da yu deng yu 64K-1 zi jie , ze fan hui 0xffff(-1)。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   initgraph() xian shi mo shi kong zhi han shu ( chu shi hua tu xing xi tong han shu )
  gong neng : ba tu xing shi pei qi she zhi wei yi zhong tu xing mo shi , jiang xuan ze de tu xing qu dong cheng xu ( zai BGI wen jian zhong ) zhuang ru dao nei cun 。
  tiao yong fang shi :
  void far initgraph(int far *driver,int far *mode,char far*path)
  
  
  qi zhong : *driver ke yi shi shu zhi (0-10), ye ke shi fu hao zhi (DETECT、CGA、MCGA、EGA、EGA64、EGAMONO、RESERVED、HERCMONO、ATT400、VGA、 PC3270)。
  *mode shen shu cong tu xing xi tong wei ge zhong chang yong de tu xing shi pei qi she zhi de tu xing mo shi zhong (CGAC0、…、IBM8514HI-- jian tou wen jian graphics.h) xuan qu 。 chang yong de you :VGAMED huo 1(640×350)( deng xiao yu BIOS de mo shi 15)、EGAHI huo 1(640×350) deng 。
  path zhi xiang de zi fu chuan wei zhuang ru qu dong cheng xu de lu jing 。 jia ru que sheng lu jing , qu dong cheng xu zai dang qian mu lu 。
  jie shu fang fa :
  ①void far closegraph() han shu yong yu dang cheng xu huan yao ji xu zai zi fu mo xia yun xing shi 。 ta shi fang you tu xing han shu suo zhan yong de nei cun , tong shi ba ping mu mo shi hui fu wei tiao yong initgraph() zhi qian de mo shi 。
  ②void far restorecrtmode() han shu yong yu jie shu yun xing 。 jiang tu xing shi pei qi she zhi dao yuan lai de mo shi 。 ren he fen pei de nei cun dou jiang zi dong shi fang 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  inport() cong duan kou zhong du ru yi ge zi de han shu
  yuan xing :int inport(int portid)
  tiao yong fang shi : zheng xing bian liang =inport(0x duan kou hao );
  gong neng : cong zhi ding duan kou di zhi du yi ge zi 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  inportb() cong duan kou du ru yi ge zi jie de han shu
  yuan xing :unsigned char inportb(int portid)
  tiao yong fang shi : zi fu bian liang =inportb(0x duan kou hao );
  gong neng : cong zhi ding duan kou di zhi du yi ge zi jie 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  int86() zhi xing zhong duan han shu ( tiao yong 8086 ruan zhong duan han shu )
  yuan xing :int int86(int intno,union REGS *inregs,union REGS *outregs)
  tiao yong fang shi :int86( zhong duan hao ,& shu ru zhi zhen ming ,& shu chu zhi zhen ming )
  fan hui zhi : zhong duan chu li jie shu shi de AX ji cun qi de zhi , cuo wu shi outregs->x.cflag!=0
  gong neng : han shu int86() yong lai zhi xing zhi ding de 8086 ruan zhong duan 。 shou xian ba shu ru zhi zhen suo zhi de gong yong ti zhong de nei rong kao bei dao CPU de ji cun qi zhong , sui ji chan sheng dui ying de zhong duan , fan hui hou jiang CPU ji cun qi (AX) de nei rong kao bei dao shu chu zhi zhen zhi xiang de gong yong ti zhong 。 zai shi yong int86() han shu jin xing BIOS jie kou de xi tong tiao yong shi , you de zhong duan tiao yong she you ruo gan xuan ze xiang , zhe xie xuan ze xiang ke yi gen ju tiao yong shi AH ji cun qi zhong de zhi lai jin xing fang wen 。
  zhu :1. xu xian ding yi union REGS shu ru zhi zhen ming , shu chu zhi zhen ming ;
  2. xiang ji cun qi chuan di ru kou xin xi
  shu ru zhi zhen ming .x. ji cun qi ming = yao fu de zhi ( ru kou xin xi );
  3. tiao yong int86 hou de jie shou chu kou xin xi
  bian liang ming = shu chu zhi zhen ming .x. ji cun qi ming
  4.REGS de ding yi ( zai dos.h zhong ):
  struct WordREGS{unsigned int ax, bx, cx, dx, si, di, cflag, flags;}
  struct BYTEREGS{unsigned char al, ah, bl, bh, cl, ch, dl, dh;}
  union REGS{struct WORDREGS x;struct BYTEREGS h;}
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  int86x() zhi xing zhong duan han shu ( tong yong 8086 ruan zhong duan jie kou han shu )
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  yuan xing :int int86x(int intno,union REGS *inregs,union REGS *outregs,struct SREGS * segregs)
  tiao yong fang shi :int86x( zhong duan hao ,& shu ru zhi zhen ming ,& shu chu zhi zhen ming ,& duan ji cun qi zhi zhen ming );
  zhu 1: xu xian ding yi union REGS shu ru zhi zhen ming , shu chu zhi zhen ming ;
  union REGS shi yi tu
  structstruct
  WORDREGSBYTEREGS
  ┌ ┌───────┬──────┐──┬── ┐
  │ ││ al │ 1 byte│
  │ │ax├──────┤──┴─ 2 bytes
  │ ││ ah │ │
  │ ├───────┼──────┤───── ┘
  │ ││ bl │
  │ │bx├──────┤
  │ ││ bh │
  │ ├───────┼──────┤
  │ ││ cl │
  │ │cx├──────┤
  │ ││ ch │
  │ ├───────┼──────┤
  │ ││ dl │
  │ │dx├──────┤
  │ ││ dh │
  union regs├───────┼──────┤
  │ │││
  │ │si││
  │ │││
  │ ├───────┤│
  │ │││
  │ │di││
  │ │││
  │ ├───────┤│
  │ │││
  │ │cflag ││
  │ │││
  │ ├───────┤│
  │ │││
  │ │flags ││
  │ │││
  └ └───────┴──────┘
  │x liang ge jie gou bian liang h│
  └── gong xiang tong yi cun chu yu ──┘
  qi zhong zi duan flags dui ying yu biao zhi ji cun qi 。 zi duan cflag jin dui ying yu jin wei biao zhi wei , han shu zai tiao yong shi bu yong gai zi duan , zhi zai fan hui shi she zhi zhe ge zi duan , yin wei xu duo BIOS fu wu dou shi tong guo jin wei biao zhi wei 0 huan shi 1 lai biao shi cheng gong huan shi shi bai 。
  zhu 2: xu xian ding yi struct SREGS duan ji cun qi zhi zhen ming ;
  jie gou SREGS ding yi ru xia
  struct SREGS {unsigned int es,cs,ss,ds}
  han shu zhi yong le gai jie gou zhong de duan ji cun qi DS he ES。 tiao yong shi gen ju ta men de zhi she zhi DS he ES, tong shi ba DS he ES yuan lai de zhi bao cun zai zhe ge jie gou zhong , fan hui shi zai hui fu DS he ES wei yuan lai de zhi , zhe jiu da ying cheng xu shi yong yuan zhi zhen huo da shu ju bian yi mo shi 。
  gai han shu zhi quan ju bian liang _doserrno deng yu ji cun qi AX zhong de zhi , qi fan hui zhi ye deng yu AX zhong de zhi 。
  zhu 3: xiang ji cun qi chuan di ru kou xin xi
  shu ru zhi zhen ming .x. ji cun qi ming = yao fu de zhi ( ru kou xin xi );
  zhu 4: tiao yong int86x hou de jie shou chu kou xin xi
  bian liang ming = shu chu zhi zhen ming .x. ji cun qi ming
  intdos() tong yong dos zhong duan jie kou han shu
  yuan xing :int intdos(inregs,outregs)
  union REGS *inregs;// tiao yong shi de ge ji cun qi de zhi
  union REGS *outregs;// fan hui ji cun qi de zhi
  gong neng : chan sheng DOS ruan zhong duan
  zhu chong : jia ru xu yao gong neng hao , ze zhuang ru AH; jia ru xu yao zi gong neng hao , ze zhuang ru AL。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   intdosx() tong yong dos zhong duan jie kou han shu
  yuan xing :int intdosx(inregs,outregs,segregs)
  union REGS *inregs; tiao yong shi de ge ji cun qi de zhi
  union REGS *outregs; fan hui ji cun qi de zhi
  struct SREGS *seregs; tiao yong shi de duan ji cun qi de zhi ( huan she zhi fan hui shi de zhi )
  
  
  gong neng : chan sheng DOS ruan zhong duan
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  intr() zhi xing 8086 ruan zhong duan han shu ( gai bian ruan zhong duan jie kou han shu )
  yuan xing :void intr(int intno,struct REGPACK *preg)
  tiao yong fang shi :intr( zhong duan hao ,& jie gou bian liang ming )
  zhu 1: jie gou REGPACK ding yi ru xia
  struct REGPACK
  {
  unsigned r_ax,r_bx,r_cx,r_dx;
  unsigned r_bp,r_si,r_di,r_ds,r_es,r_flag;}
  zhu 2: shi yong shi xian ding yi yi ge jie gou bian liang
  struct REGPACK jie gou bian liang ming ;
  zhu 3: ru kou he chu kou yong tong yi ge jie gou bian liang lai chuan di ji cun qi de zhi 。
  jie gou bian liang ming .r_ax= yao fu de zhi ;
  ......
  intr( zhong duan hao ,& jie gou bian liang ming );
  mou bian liang = jie gou bian liang ming .r_ax;
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  itoa() ba zheng xing shu zhuan huan wei zi fu chuan de han shu
  yuan xing :char *itoa(int value,char *string,int radix)
  gong neng : ba value de zhi zhuan huan wei yi NULL jie shu de zi fu chuan , bing ba jie guo cun zai string zhong 。radix shi zhuan huan de ji shu zhi , zai 2 dao 36 zhi jian 。 fen pei gei string de kong jian bi xu ke rong na fan hui de suo you zi jie ( zui duo 17 zi jie )。
  fan hui zhi : zhi xiang string de zhi zhen
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  kbhit() jian cha dang qian an xia de jian de han shu
  yuan xing :int kbhit(void)
  gong neng : jian cha an xia de jian shi fou you xiao , ruo you xiao ze ke yong getch() huo getche() du qu 。
  fan hui zhi : jia ru an jian you xiao , fan hui yi fei ling zhi , fou ze fan hui 0。
  tou wen jian :conio.h
  keep() zhu liu bing tui chu han shu
  yuan xing :void keep(unsigned char status,unsigned size)
  gong neng : yong yu an zhuang yi ge TSR cheng xu ( shi yong DOS gong neng tiao yong 0x31)。 chu kou zhuang tai she zhi wei zai status zhong de zhi , cheng xu zhan yong cun chu kong jian wei size, bing shi fang nei cun de qi yu bu fen 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  log()
  yuan xing ∶double log(double num)
  gong neng ∶ qiu num de zi ran dui shu zhi
  tou wen jian ∶math.h
  log10()
  yuan xing ∶double log10(double num)
  gong neng ∶ qiu num yi 10 wei di de dui shu zhi
  tou wen jian ∶math.h
  _lrotl() jiang yi ge wu fu hao chang zheng xing shu zuo xun huan yi wei de han shu
  yuan xing :unsigned long _lrotl(unsigned long value,int count)
  gong neng : jiang value xiang zuo xun huan yi dong count wei 。
  fan hui zhi : jiang value xiang zuo xun huan yi dong count wei hou de zhi 。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  _lrotr() jiang yi ge wu fu hao chang zheng xing shu you xun huan yi wei de han shu
  yuan xing :unsigned long _lrotr(unsigned long value,int count)
  gong neng : jiang value xiang you xun huan yi dong count wei 。
  fan hui zhi : jiang value xiang you xun huan yi dong count wei hou de zhi 。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  
  
  lseek() yi dong wen jian zhi zhen han shu
  yuan xing :long lseek(int handle,long offset,int fromwhere)
  handle=open() han shu de fan hui zhi ( wen jian ju bing );
  fromwhere= wen jian wei zhi
  (SEEK_SET(0) cong wen jian tou wei zhi ;SEEK_CUR(1) cong dang qian wen jian zhi zhen wei zhi ;SEEK_END(2) cong wen jian jie yi wei zhi )
  gong neng : ba wen jian zhi zhen yi dong dao fromwhere suo zhi de di zhi jia shang offset xin wei zhi de pian yi shang 。
  tou wen jian :io.h
  fan hui zhi : zhi zhen xin wei zhi de pian yi liang ( xiang dui yu wen jian kai shi chu ), chu cuo shi fan hui -1L。
  ltoa() ba chang zheng xing shu zhuan huan wei zi fu chuan de han shu
  yuan xing :char *ltoa(long value,char *string,int radix)
  gong neng : ba value de zhi zhuan huan wei yi NULL jie shu de zi fu chuan , bing ba jie guo cun zai string zhong 。radix shi zhuan huan de ji shu zhi , zai 2 dao 36 zhi jian 。 fen pei gei string de kong jian bi xu ke rong na fan hui de suo you zi jie ( zui duo 33 zi jie )。
  fan hui zhi : zhi xiang string de zhi zhen
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  malloc() fen pei nei cun han shu
  yuan xing :void *malloc(size_t size)
  gong neng : cong dui zhong fen pei da xiao wei size zi jie de kuai 。win32 ye shi yong 。
  fan hui zhi : fan hui xin fen pei nei cun de di zhi , ruo wu zu gou nei cun , fan hui NULL。
  tou wen jian :alloc.h、stdlib.h
  mkdir() chuang jian mu lu han shu
  yuan xing :int mkdir(const char *path)
  gong neng : an gei ding de lu jing jian li yi ge xin de mu lu
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )
  mktemp() jian li yi ge wei yi de wen jian ming de han shu
  yuan xing :char *mktemp(char *template)
  gong neng : shi yong yi ge wei yi de wen jian ming lai ti huan zi fu chuan template, bing fan hui template。
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  MK_FP() she zhi yi ge yuan zhi zhen de hong
  yuan xing :void far *MK_FP(unsigned seg,unsigned ofs)
  gong neng : tong guo duan zhi (seg) he pian yi liang (ofs) jian li yi ge yuan zhi zhen
  fan hui zhi : yuan zhi zhen
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  movedata() kao bei shu ju han shu
  yuan xing :void movedata(unsigned srcseg,unsigned srcoff,unsigned dstseg,unsigned dstoff,size_t n)
  gong neng : cong yuan di zhi (srcseg:srcoff) kao bei n ge zi jie de shu ju dao mu biao di zhi (dstseg:dstoff)。
  tou wen jian :mem.h、string.h
  _open() da kai yi ge wen jian jin xing du xie de han shu
  yuan xing :int _open(path,oflags)
  char *path;// yi jian li wen jian de lu jing ming
  int oflags;// fang shi
  gong neng : da kai you path zhi ding de wen jian , fan hui wen jian de ju bing
  fan hui zhi :0( zheng chang jie shu );-1( cuo wu )
  tou wen jian :fcntl.h、io.h
  open() da kai wen jian jin xing du xie de han shu
  yuan xing :int open(const char *path,int Access[,unsigned mode])
  shi yong fang fa : wen jian ju bing =open(" wen jian ming ", da kai mo shi da kai mo shi );
  gong neng : da kai path zhi ding de wen jian , gen ju access zhi ding de mo shi zhi du xie 。
  access mo shi :
  O_RDONLY yi zhi du fang shi da kai
  O_WRONLY yi zhi xie fang shi da kai
  O_RDOWR yi du xie fang shi da kai
  yi shang biao zhi zhi neng shi yong yi ge , yi xia ke yi yong zu he shi yong
  O_NDELAY
  O_APPEND ruo zhi wei , mei ci xie cao zuo qian dou shi wen jian zhi zhen zhi dao wen jian mo yi
  O_CREAT ruo wen jian bu cun zai ze chuang jian
  O_TRUNC ruo wen jian yi cun zai , ze jiang wen jian chang du jie wei 0
  O_EXCL zhi he O_CREAT yi qi shi yong , ruo wen jian yi jing cun zai , fan hui cuo wu dai ma
  O_BINARY yi er jin zhi fang shi da kai
  O_TEXT yi wen ben fang shi da kai
  jia ru shi yong le O_CREAT fang shi , ze xu yao ti gong shen shu mode
  (S_IWRITE ke xie ;S_IREAD ke du ;S_IREADS_IWRITE ke du xie )
  fan hui zhi : wen jian ju bing ( cheng gong shi );-1( shi bai shi )。
  cheng gong shi , wen jian zhi zhen zhi xiang wen jian tou 。
  tou wen jian :fcntl.h、io.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   outport() shu chu yi ge zi dao duan kou zhong de han shu
  yuan xing :void outport(int portid,int value)
  tiao yong fang shi :outport(0x duan kou hao , yao shu chu de zi );
  gong neng : wang zhi ding duan kou di zhi shu chu yi ge zi 。
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  
  
  outportb() shu chu yi ge zi jie dao duan kou zhong de han shu
  yuan xing :void outportb(int portid,unsigned char value)
  tiao yong fang shi :outportb(0x duan kou hao , yao shu chu de zi jie );
  gong neng : wang zhi ding duan kou di zhi shu chu yi ge zi jie 。
  fu :PC I/O di zhi fen pei
  PC zhi yong le 10 wei di zhi xian (A0-A9) jin xing yi ma , qi xun zhi de fan wei wei 0H-3FFH, gong you 1024 ge I/O di zhi 。 zhe 1024 ge di zhi zhong qian ban duan (A9=0, fan wei wei 0H-1FFH) shi shu yu zhu ji ban I/O yi ma , hou ban duan (A9=1, fan wei wei 200H-3FFH) ze shi yong lai kuo zhan cha cao shang de I/O yi ma yong 。
  I/O duan kou gong neng biao
  ———————————————————————————
  I/O di zhi gong neng 、 yong tu
  ———————————————————————————
  0DMA tong dao 0, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi (DMA kong zhi qi 1(8237))
  1DMA tong dao 0, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi
  2DMA tong dao 1, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi
  3DMA tong dao 1, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi
  4DMA tong dao 2, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi
  5DMA tong dao 2, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi
  6DMA tong dao 3, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi
  7DMA tong dao 3, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi
  8DMA tong dao 0-3 de zhuang tai ji cun qi
  AH DMA tong dao 0-3 de ping bi ji cun qi
  BH DMA tong dao 0-3 de fang shi ji cun qi
  CH DMA qing chu zi jie zhi zhen
  DH DMA zhu qing chu zi jie
  EH DMA tong dao 0-3 de qing ping bi ji cun qi
  FH DMA tong dao 0-3 de xie ping bi ji cun qi
  19HDMA qi shi ji cun qi
  20H-3FH ke bian cheng zhong duan kong zhi qi 1(8259) shi yong
  40H ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi (8253) shi yong , du / xie ji shu qi 0
  41H ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi ji cun qi
  42H ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi duo xiang ji cun qi
  43H ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi , kong zhi zi ji cun qi
  44H ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi , duo xiang ji cun qi (AT)
  47H ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi , ji shu qi 0 de kong zhi zi ji cun qi
  48H-5FH ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi shi yong
  60H-61H jian pan shu ru shu ju huan chong qu
  61HAT:8042 jian pan kong zhi ji cun qi /XT:8255 shu chu ji cun qi
  62H8255 shu ru ji cun qi
  63H8255 ming ling fang shi ji cun qi
  64H8042 jian pan shu ru huan chong qu /8042 zhuang tai
  65H-6FH8255/8042 zhuan yong
  70HCMOS RAM di zhi ji cun qi
  71HCMOS RAM shu ju ji cun qi
  80H sheng chan ce shi duan kou
  81HDMA tong dao 2, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi
  82HDMA tong dao 3, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi
  83HDMA tong dao 1, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi
  87HDMA tong dao 0, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi
  89HDMA tong dao 6, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi
  8AHDMA tong dao 7, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi
  8BHDMA tong dao 5, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi
  8FHDMA tong dao 4, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi
  93H-9FHDMA kong zhi qi zhuan yong
  A0HNM1 ping bi ji cun qi / ke bian cheng zhong duan kong zhi qi 2
  A1H ke bian cheng zhong duan kong zhi qi 2 ping bi
  C0HDMA tong dao 0, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi (DMA kong zhi qi 2(8237))
  C2HDMA tong dao 0, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi
  C4HDMA tong dao 1, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi
  C6HDMA tong dao 1, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi
  C8HDMA tong dao 2, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi
  CAHDMA tong dao 2, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi
  CCHDMA tong dao 3, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi
  CEHDMA tong dao 3, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi
  D0HDMA zhuang tai ji cun qi
  D2HDMA xie qing qiu ji cun qi
  D4HDMA ping bi ji cun qi
  D6HDMA fang shi ji cun qi
  D8HDMA qing chu zi jie zhi zhen
  DAHDMA zhu qing
  DCHDMA qing ping bi ji cun qi
  DEHDMA xie ping bi ji cun qi
  DFH-EFH bao liu
  F0H-FFH xie chu li qi shi yong
  100H-16FH bao liu
  170H 1 hao ying pan shu ju ji cun qi
  171H 1 hao ying pan cuo wu ji cun qi
  172H 1 hao ying pan shu ju shan qu ji shu
  173H 1 hao ying pan shan qu shu
  174H 1 hao ying pan zhu mian ( di zi jie )
  175H 1 hao ying pan zhu mian ( gao zi jie )
  176H 1 hao ying pan qu dong qi / ci tou ji cun qi
  177H 1 hao ying pan zhuang tai ji cun qi
  1F0H 0 hao ying pan shu ju ji cun qi
  1F1H 0 hao ying pan cuo wu ji cun qi
  1F2H 0 hao ying pan shu ju shan qu ji shu
  1F3H 0 hao ying pan shan qu shu
  1F4H 0 hao ying pan zhu mian ( di zi jie )
  1F5H 0 hao ying pan zhu mian ( gao zi jie )
  1F6H 0 hao ying pan qu dong qi / ci tou ji cun qi
  1F7H 0 hao ying pan zhuang tai ji cun qi
  1F9H-1FFH bao liu
  200H-20FH you xi kong zhi duan kou
  210H-21FH kuo zhan dan yuan
  278H 3 hao bing xing kou , shu ju duan kou
  279H 3 hao bing xing kou , zhuang tai duan kou
  27AH 3 hao bing xing kou , kong zhi duan kou
  2B0H-2DFH bao liu
  2E0H EGA/VGA shi yong
  2E1H GPIP(0 hao shi pei qi )
  2E2H shu ju huo qu (0 hao shi pei qi )
  2E3H shu ju huo qu (1 hao shi pei qi )
  2E4H-2F7H bao liu
  2F8H 2 hao chuan xing kou , fa song / bao chi ji cun qi (RS232 jie kou ka 2)
  2F9H 2 hao chuan xing kou , zhong duan you xiao ji cun qi
  2FAH 2 hao chuan xing kou , zhong duan ID ji cun qi
  2FBH 2 hao chuan xing kou , xian kong zhi ji cun qi
  2FCH 2 hao chuan xing kou , tiao zhi jie tiao kong zhi ji cun qi
  2FDH 2 hao chuan xing kou , xian zhuang tai ji cun qi
  2FEH 2 hao chuan xing kou , tiao zhi jie tiao zhuang tai ji cun qi
  2FFH bao liu
  300H-31FH yuan xing ka
  320H ying pan shi pei qi ji cun qi
  322H ying pan shi pei qi kong zhi / zhuang tai ji cun qi
  324H ying pan shi pei qi ti shi / zhong duan zhuang tai ji cun qi
  325H-347H bao liu
  348H-357HDCA3278
  366H-36FHPC wang luo
  372H ruan pan shi pei qi shu ju shu chu / zhuang tai ji cun qi
  375H-376H ruan pan shi pei qi shu ju ji cun qi
  377H ruan pan shi pei qi shu ju shu ru ji cun qi
  378H 2 hao bing xing kou , shu ju duan kou
  379H 2 hao bing xing kou , zhuang tai duan kou
  37AH 2 hao bing xing kou , kong zhi duan kou
  380H-38FHSDLC ji BSC tong xun
  390H-393HCluster shi pei qi 0
  3A0H-3AFHBSC tong xun
  3B0H-3B HMDA shi pin ji cun qi
  3BCH 1 hao bing xing kou , shu ju duan kou
  3BDH 1 hao bing xing kou , zhuang tai duan kou
  3BEH 1 hao bing xing kou , kong zhi duan kou
  3C0H-3CFHEGA/VGA shi pin ji cun qi
  3D0H-3D7HCGA shi pin ji cun qi
  3F0H-3F7H ruan pan kong zhi qi ji cun qi
  3F8H 1 hao chuan xing kou , fa song / bao chi ji cun qi (RS232 jie kou ka 1)
  3F9H 1 hao chuan xing kou , zhong duan you xiao ji cun qi
  3FAH 1 hao chuan xing kou , zhong duan ID ji cun qi
  3FBH 1 hao chuan xing kou , xian kong zhi ji cun qi
  3FCH 1 hao chuan xing kou , tiao zhi jie tiao kong zhi ji cun qi
  3FDH 1 hao chuan xing kou , xian zhuang tai ji cun qi
  3FEH 1 hao chuan xing kou , tiao zhi jie tiao zhuang tai ji cun qi
  3FFH bao liu
  —————————————————————————-
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   outtextxy() zai zhi ding wei zhi xian shi yi zi fu chuan de han shu
  yuan xing :void far outtextxy(int x,int y,char far *textstring)
  gong neng : an zhao dang qian dui qi fang shi he dang qian zi ti 、 fang xiang 、 da xiao zai shi qu zhong gei ding wei zhi xian shi yi wen ben zi fu chuan 。
  
  
  zhu chong : yong textwidth he textheight han shu jue ding zi fu chuan de chi cun da xiao 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  peek() fan hui zhi ding nei cun zhong zi de han shu
  yuan xing :int peek(int seg,unsigned offset)
  gong neng : fan hui di zhi wei seg:offset de zi dan yuan de zhi
  tou wen jian :dos.h
  peekb() fan hui zhi ding nei cun zhong zi jie de han shu
  yuan xing :char peekb(int seg,unsigned offset)
  gong neng : fan hui di zhi wei seg:offset de zi jie dan yuan de zhi
  poke() zai zhi ding de nei cun zhong cun chu yi ge zi de han shu
  yuan xing :void poke(int seg,unsigned offset,int word)
  gong neng : ba word de 16 wei zhi fang dao di zhi wei seg:offset de zi dan yuan zhong
  pokeb() zai zhi ding de nei cun zhong cun chu yi ge zi jie de han shu
  yuan xing :void pokeb(int seg,unsigned offset,int byte)
  gong neng : ba byte de 8 wei zhi fang dao di zhi wei seg:offset de zi jie dan yuan zhong
  pow()
  yuan xing ∶double pow(double b,double eXP)
  gong neng ∶ qiu yi b wei di de exp ci mi de zhi
  tou wen jian ∶math.h
  printf() xie ge shi hua shu chu dao stdout de han shu
  shi yong fang shi : li
  ①printf("%f", shi xing bian liang );
  ②printf("%f",(* han shu zhi zhen ming )( shen shu ));
  ③printf("%c", zi fu bian liang );
  ④printf("%c",* zi fu chuan bian liang ming ji zi fu chuan di zhi );
  zhi xian shi zi fu chuan de di yi ge zi fu 。
  ⑤printf("%s", zi fu chuan shu zu ming ji zi fu chuan shu zu di zhi );
  ⑥printf("%-10s", zi fu chuan bian liang ming );
  xian shi zi fu chuan shi xian ding shi wei ( bu zu ze bu kong ge ), bing kao zuo duan dui qi 。
  ⑦printf("%s",* er ji zhi zhen bian liang );
  ⑧printf(" zi fu chuan %05d\n", zheng xing bian liang );
  xian xian shi zi fu chuan , ran hou xian shi zheng xing bian liang de zhi ( xian wu wei , bu zu ze bu ling ), zui hou huan xing 。
  zhu :
  1.① xu xian ding yi float shi xing bian liang ;
  ② xu xian ding yi float (* han shu zhi zhen ming )(); bing you xiang ying de han shu
  ③ xu xian ding yi char zi fu bian liang =' dan ge zi fu ';
  ④⑥ xu xian ding yi char * zi fu chuan bian liang ming ; bing fu zhi
  ⑤ xu xian ding yi char zi fu chuan shu zu ming []=" zi fu chuan ";
  ⑦ xu xian ding yi char ** er ji zhi zhen bian liang
  2. qi ta zhuan huan zi fu ( zai % hou ) you
  ① o zheng xing shu yi wu fu hao de ba jin zhi xing shi shu chu
  ② x zheng xing shu he wei bian liang yi wu fu hao de shi liu jin zhi xing shi shu chu
  ③ u zheng xing shu yi wu fu hao de shi jin zhi xing shi shu chu
  ④ e fu dian shu huo shuang jing du fu dian shu yi zhi shu xing shi shu chu
  ⑤ g xuan yong e huo f ge shi zhong shu chu wei shu jiao duan de xing shi
  ⑥ p yi wu fu hao de shi liu jin zhi xing shi shu chu bian liang de di zhi 。 ruo yao shu chu han shu de di zhi , yuan zhi zhen yong Fp; jin zhi zhen yong Np。
  putch() xiang ping mu shu chu zi fu de han shu
  shi yong fang shi :
  ① putch(' zhuan yi zi fu ');
  ② putch(' dan ge zi fu ');
  ③ putch( zi fu bian liang );
  zhu :③ xu xian ding yi char zi fu bian liang =' dan ge zi fu ';
  tou wen jian :conio.h
  putchar() zai stdout shang shu chu zi fu de hong
  yuan xing :int putchar(int c)
  fan hui zhi : cheng gong fan hui zi fu c, shi bai fan hui EOF。
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  putenv() jiang zi fu chuan fang ru dang qian huan jing zhong de han shu
  yuan xing :int putenv(const char *name)
  yong fa li :putenv("PATH=C:\B\TC");
  gong neng : ba zi fu chuan name jia dao dang qian cheng xu yun xing de huan jing zhong 。 dang cheng xu jie shu hou , yuan huan jing jiang de dao hui fu 。
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )
  
  
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  putimage() chong xin xie ping han shu ( shu chu yi ge wei tu xiang dao tu xing ping mu shang de han shu )
  gong neng : jiang yong getimage() han shu chu cun zai buf suo zhi xiang de nei cun qu yu de tu xing shu chu dao ping mu shang 。
  yuan xing :
  void far putimage(int left,int top,void far *buf,int op)
  qi zhong op de zhi jue ding le tu xing yi he zhong fang shi xie dao ping mu shang 。
  COPY_PUT huo 0 yuan yang fu zhi
  XOR_PUT huo 1 yu ping mu tu xing qu “ yi huo ” hou xie ru
  OR_PUT huo 2 yu ping mu tu xing qu “ huo ” hou xie ru
  AND_PUT huo 3 yu ping mu tu xing qu “ yu ” hou xie ru
  NOT_PUT huo 4 fu zhi yuan tu xing de “ ni ”
  shi yong bu tong de fang shi jiang tu xing xie dao ping mu shang , ke yi shi xian tu xing bian huan 。 li ru , cai yong yi huo fang shi zai yuan shi wei zhi chong xie , na me , yuan tu jiang xiao shi 。 jia ru zai shi yong fu zhi fang shi (COPY_PUT) zai yi ge xin de di fang chong xian gai tu xing , jiu chan sheng le tu xing de yi dong 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  putpixel() xie xiang su dian han shu
  yuan xing :void far putpixel(int x,int y,int color)
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  puts() shu chu yi zi fu chuan dao stdout( biao zhun shu chu ) de han shu
  shi yong fang shi :
  ① puts(" zi fu chuan ");
  ② puts( zi fu chuan bian liang ming ji zi fu chuan bian liang de di zhi )
  zhu :② xu xian ding yi char * zi fu chuan bian liang ming =" zi fu chuan ";
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  _read() du wen jian han shu
  yuan xing :int _read(handle,buffer,count)
  int handle;// wen jian ju bing
  void *buffer;// cun fang du chu shu ju de huan chong qu
  unsigned count;// yi ci du chu de zi jie shu
  gong neng : cong you handle zhi ding de wen jian zhong du qu you count zhi ding zi jie shu de shu ju dao buffer
  fan hui zhi :0-0xfffe( shi ji du chu de zi jie shu );-1( cuo wu )
  tou wen jian :io.h
  read() du wen jian han shu
  yuan xing :int read(int handle,void *buf,unsigned len)
  gong neng : cong yu handle( cong creat、open、dup huo dup2 tiao yong zhong de dao de ju bing ) xiang lian de wen jian zhong du qu len zi jie dao you buf suo zhi de huan chong qu zhong 。 dui yu yi wen ben fang shi da kai de wen jian ,read shan chu du ru shu ju zhong de hui che fu 。 dang du dao Ctrl-Z zi fu shi fan hui wen jian jie shu 。 dui yu ci pan wen jian ,read cong dang qian wen jian zhi zhen chu kai shi du qu shu ju 。 zai du cao zuo wan cheng hou , wen jian zhi zhen zeng liang wei du ru de zi jie shu 。 dui yu she bei , zhi jie cong she bei zhong du zi jie 。
  fan hui zhi : du ru huan chong qu de zi jie shu , jia ru wen jian yi wen ben fang shi da kai , ze bu bao kuo hui che fu he Ctrl-Z zi fu 。
  tou wen jian :io.h
  realloc() chong xin fen pei nei cun han shu
  yuan xing :void *realloc(void *block,size_t size)
  block zhi xiang yong malloc、calloc huo realloc yi de dao de nei cun 。
  size shi chong xin fen pei de zi jie 。
  fan hui zhi : chong fen pei de kuai di zhi 。 ruo bu neng chong fen pei , ze fan hui NULL。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  rectangle() hua yi ge ju xing de han shu
  yuan xing :void far rectangle(int left,int top,int right,int bottom)
  gong neng : yong dang qian xian xing 、 kuan du he hua xian yan se hui zhi yi ge ju xing 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  remove() shan chu yi ge wen jian de han shu
  yuan xing :int remove(const char *filename)
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )
  tou wen jian :stdio.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   rename() wen jian gai ming han shu
  yuan xing :int rename(const char *oldname,const char *newname)
  
  
  zhu chong : jia ru newname zhong bao han le yi ge qu dong qi zhi shi fu , ta bi xu yu oldname zhong gei chu de zhi shi fu xiang tong 。oldname he newname zhong de mu lu ke yi bu tong , yin ci rename han shu ba wen jian cong yi ge mu lu yi dao ling yi ge mu lu 。 bu da ying shi yong tong pei fu 。
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )
  restorecrtmode() hui fu ping mu shi pin mo shi wei tiao yong initgraph qian de she zhi de han shu
  yuan xing :void far restorecrtmode(void)
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  rmdir() shan chu mu lu han shu
  yuan xing :int rmdir(const char *path)
  zhu chong : shan chu de mu lu bu neng shi dang qian mu lu , bu shi gen mu lu , shi kong mu lu
  fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( cao zuo chu cuo )
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  _rotl() jiang yi ge wu fu hao zheng xing shu zuo xun huan yi wei de han shu
  yuan xing :unsigned _rotl(unsigned value,int count)
  gong neng : jiang value xiang zuo xun huan yi dong count wei 。
  fan hui zhi : jiang value xiang zuo xun huan yi dong count wei hou de zhi 。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  _rotr() jiang yi ge wu fu hao zheng xing shu you xun huan yi wei de han shu
  yuan xing :unsigned _rotr(unsigned value,int count)
  gong neng : jiang value xiang you xun huan yi dong count wei 。
  fan hui zhi : jiang value xiang you xun huan yi dong count wei hou de zhi 。
  tou wen jian :stdlib.h
  scanf() ge shi hua shu ru han shu
  shi yong ge shi :scanf(" shu ru ge shi ", shu ru xiang xi lie )
  ① scanf("%f",& shi xing bian liang )
  ② scanf("%c",& zi fu bian liang )
  ③ scanf("%s", zi fu chuan bian liang )
  ④ scanf("%d",& zheng xing bian liang )
  zhu : xu xian ding yi yi shang ge zhong bian liang ru char * zi fu chuan bian liang ;
  searchpath() an dos lu jing cha zhao yi ge wen jian de han shu
  yuan xing :char *searchpath(const char *file)
  yong fa :p=searchpath(" wen jian ming "); xian ding yi char *p;
  gong neng : sou suo dos lu jing ( huan jing bian liang zhong de path=....) lai ding wei you file gei chu de wen jian 。
  fan hui zhi : zhi xiang wan zheng lu jing ming zi fu chuan de zhi zhen 。 ding wei shi bai fan hui NULL。
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  segread() du duan ji cun qi han shu
  yuan xing :void segread(struct SREGS *segp)
  zuo yong : ba dang qian ji cun qi de zhi bao cun dao SREGS xing ji gou bian liang segp zhong 。
  segs.cs= dai ma duan ji cun qi de zhi ;
  segs.ds= shu ju duan ji cun qi de zhi ;
  segs.es= fu jia duan ji cun qi de zhi ;
  segs.ss= dui zhan duan ji cun qi de zhi ;
  setactivepage() she zhi tu xing shu chu huo dong ye de han shu
  yuan xing :void far setactivepage(int page)
  gong neng : shi page cheng wei dang qian huo dong de tu xing ye , qi hou suo you de tu xing shu chu cao zuo dou zai page tu xing ye jin xing 。 huo dong tu xing ye ke yi bu shi zai ping mu shang kan dao de ye 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  setcolor() she zhi dang qian yao hua de xian yan se de han shu
  yuan xing :void far setcolor(int color)
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  zhu chong : yan se zhi (EGA/VGA)
  0-BLACK;1-BLUE; 2-GREEN;
  3-CYAN; 4-RED;5-MAGENTA;
  6-BROWN;7-LIGHTGRAY;8-DARKGRAY;
  9-LIGHTBLUE;10-LIGHTGREEN;11-LIGHTCYAN;
  12-LIGHTRED;13-LIGHTMAGENTA;
  14-YELLOW;15-WHITE
  setdisk() she zhi dang qian qu dong qi de han shu
  yuan xing :int setdisk(int drive)
  gong neng : ba you drive zhi ding de qu dong qi xiu gai cheng dang qian qu dong qi , fan hui ke shi yong de qu dong qi shu 。
  tou wen jian :dir.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  setgraphmode() jiang xi tong she zhi cheng tu xing mo shi bing qing ping de han shu
  yuan xing :void far setgraphmode(int mode)
  gong neng : xuan ze yi ge bu tong yu tiao yong initgraph() han shu shi suo she zhi de que sheng de tu xing mo shi 。
  fan hui zhi : jia ru gei le yi ge dui dang qian qu dong cheng xu lai shuo wu xiao de mo shi , ze fan hui -10。
  
  
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  setlinestyle() she zhi dang qian hua xian kuan du he lei xing de han shu
  yuan xing :
  void far setlinestyle(int linestyle,unsigned upattern,int thickness)
  qi zhong :linestyle=0 wei shi xian ;1 wei dian xian ;2 wei zhong xin xian ;3 wei po zhe xian ;4 wei yong hu ding yi 。
  thickness=1 wei yi ge xiang su kuan ;3 wei san ge xiang su kuan 。
  zhi you dang linestyle=4 shi ,upattern cai qi zuo yong 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  settextstyle() xian shi zi fu de dang qian she zhi han shu
  gong neng : she zhi dang qian shu chu ying wen zi fu de zi ti 、 da xiao he fang xiang 。
  tiao yong fang shi :
  void far settextstyle(int font,int direction,int charsize)
  qi zhong ① shen shu font que ding suo xuan ding de zi ti wai xing ,
  DEFAULT_FONT huo 0 shi 8×8 wei tu zi ti
  TRIPLEX_FONT huo 1 shi san chong shi liang zi ti
  SMALL_FONT huo 2 shi xiao hao shi liang zi ti
  SANS_SERIF_FONT huo 3 shi wu chen xian shi liang zi ti
  GOTHIC_FONT huo 4 shi ge te shi liang zi ti
  ② shen shu durection zi fu de xian shi fang xiang ,
  HORIZ_DIR huo 0 shi shui ping fang xiang
  VERT_DIR huo 1 shi chui zhi fang xiang
  ③ shen shu charsize biao shi zi fu fang da de bei shu , qi zhi wei 0 dao 10。
  setvect() she zhi zhong duan xiang liang han shu
  setvect(int zhong duan hao ,void interrupt(* zhong duan han shu ming ))
  gong neng : ba zhong duan fu wu cheng xu de di zhi zhuang ru zhong duan xiang liang biao zhong 。
  tiao yong fang fa :setvect( zhong duan hao , zhong duan han shu ming ji di zhi );
  (1) de yu xian ding yi yao dai ti yuan han shu de xin han shu
  void interrupt zhong duan han shu ming (void)
  {......}
  (2) de xian bao liu yuan zhong duan han shu di zhi
  void interrupt (* bao liu han shu ming )(void);
  bao liu han shu ming =getvect( zhong duan hao );
  (3) shi hou de jiang yuan zhong duan han shu di zhi zhuang hui xiang liang biao zhong
  setvect( zhong duan hao , bao liu han shu ming );
  setviewport() jian li shi kou de han shu
  yuan xing : void far setviewport(int left,int top,int right,int bottom,int clip)
  gong neng : yong zuo shang jiao zuo biao left,top he you xia jiao zuo biao right,bottom jian li yi ge shi kou , jia ru clip wei 1, ze chao chu shi kou de shu chu zi dong bei jian cai diao ; jia ru clip wei 0, ze bu bei jian cai 。
  li :setviewport(0,0,100,100,1) jian li dui jiao xian wei 0,0 he 100,100 de shi kou , bing dai you jian cai gong neng 。
  zhu : yao qing chu dang qian shi kou , yong han shu clearnviewport()。
  setvisualpage() she zhi ke jian de tu xing ye hao de han shu
  yuan xing :void far setvisualpage(int page)
  gong neng : shi de page cheng wei ke jian de tu xing ye 。
  tou wen jian :graphics.h
  sin()
  yuan xing ∶double sin(double arg)
  gong neng ∶ ji suan arg( hu du ) de zheng xian zhi
  tou wen jian ∶math.h
  sprintf() ge shi hua shu chu dao shu zu de han shu
  yuan xing ∶int sprintf(buf,format,arg_list)
  qi zhong char *buf;
  gong neng ∶ ba arg_list shen liang de zhi an format de ge shi shu chu dao buf zhong 。
  li ∶sprintf(buffer," xiang dui shan qu hao ∶%s( qi zhong ∶ zhu mian hao wei %d/ ci tou hao wei %d/ shan qu hao wei %d)",string,cyls,head,sector);
  qi zhong char buffer[100];
  char *string="";
  int cyls,head,sector;
  fan hui zhi ∶ shi ji xie ru shu zu de zi fu ge shu 。
  tou wen jian ∶stdio.h
  strcat()
  yuan xing ∶char *strcat(str1,str2)
  gong neng ∶ ba str2 suo zhi de zi fu chuan lian jie dao str1 suo zhi de zi fu chuan hou 。
  fan hui zhi ∶ zhi xiang str1 de zhi zhen 。
  tan()
  yuan xing ∶double tan(double arg)
  gong neng ∶ ji suan arg( hu du ) de zheng qie zhi
  tou wen jian ∶math.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  
   _write() xie wen jian han shu
  yuan xing :int _write(handle,buffer,count)
  int handle;// wen jian de ju bing
  void *buffer;// cun fang shu ju de huan chong qu
  unsigned count;// xie ru de zi jie shu
  
  
  gong neng : cong you buffer zhi ding de huan chong qu xie ru you count zhi ding zi jie shu de shu ju dao you handle zhi ding de wen jian 。 fan hui shi ji xie ru de zi jie shu 。
  fan hui zhi :0-0xfffe( shi ji xie ru de zi jie shu );-1( cuo wu )
  tou wen jian :io.h
  write() xie wen jian han shu
  yuan xing :int write(int handle,char *buf,unsigned len)
  yong fa :write( wen jian ju bing , huan chong qu di zhi , huan chong qu zi jie chang du < zui da 65534>);
  gong neng : jiang huan chong qu de shu ju xie ru yu handle xiang lian de wen jian huo she bei zhong ,handle shi cong creat、open、dup huo dup2 tiao yong zhong de dao de wen jian ju bing 。 dui yu ci pan huo ci pan wen jian , xie cao zuo cong dang qian wen jian zhi zhen chu kai shi , dui yu yong O_APPEND xuan xiang da kai de wen jian , xie shu ju zhi qian , wen jian zhi zhen zhi xiang EOF; dui yu she bei , zi jie bei zhi jie chuan song dao she bei zhong ;
  fan hui zhi : shi ji xie ru de zi jie shu ( bu bao kuo hui che fu ), chu cuo shi fan hui -1。
  tou wen jian :io.h
  geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo【原文】【汉音对照
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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  absread() du ci pan jue dui shan qu han shu    yuan xing :int absread(int drive,int num,int sectnum,void *buf)    gong neng : cong drive zhi ding de qu dong qi ci pan shang ,sectnum zhi ding de luo ji shan qu hao kai shi du qu ( tong guo DOS zhong duan 0x25 du qu )num ge ( zui duo 64K ge ) shan qu de nei rong , chu cun yu buf suo zhi de huan chong qu zhong 。    shen shu :drive=0 dui ying A pan ,drive=1 dui ying B pan 。    fan hui zhi :0: cheng gong ;-1: shi bai 。    tou wen jian :dos.h   abswrite() xie ci pan jue dui shan qu han shu    yuan xing :int abswrite(int drive,int nsects,int lsect,void *buffer)   drive=0(A qu dong qi )、1(B qu dong qi )、   nsects= yao xie de shan qu shu ( zui duo 64K ge );   lsect= qi shi luo ji shan qu hao ;   buffer= yao xie ru shu ju de nei cun qi shi di zhi 。    gong neng : jiang zhi ding nei rong xie ru ( tiao yong DOS zhong duan 0x26) ci pan shang de zhi ding shan qu , ji shi xie ru de di fang shi ci pan de luo ji jie gou 、 wen jian 、FAT biao he mu lu jie gou suo zai de shan qu , ye zhao chang jin xing 。    fan hui zhi :0: cheng gong ;-1: shi bai 。    tou wen jian :dos.h   atof() jiang zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng fu dian shu de han shu    yuan xing :double atof(const char *s)    gong neng : ba s suo zhi xiang de zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng double lei xing 。   s ge shi wei : fu hao   shu zi . shu zi  E fu hao   shu zi    fan hui zhi : zi fu chuan de zhuan huan zhi 。    tou wen jian :math.h、stdlib.h   atoi() jiang zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng zheng xing shu de han shu    yuan xing :int atoi(const char *s)    gong neng : ba s suo zhi xiang de zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng int lei xing 。   s ge shi wei : fu hao   shu zi    fan hui zhi : zi fu chuan de zhuan huan zhi 。 ruo chu cuo ze fan hui 0。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   atol() jiang zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng chang zheng xing shu de han shu    yuan xing :long atol(const char *s)    gong neng : ba s suo zhi xiang de zi fu chuan zhuan huan cheng long int lei xing 。   s ge shi wei : fu hao   shu zi    fan hui zhi : zi fu chuan de zhuan huan zhi 。 ruo chu cuo ze fan hui 0。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   bcd() ba yi ge shu zhuan huan cheng dui ying de BCD ma de han shu    yuan xing :bcd bcd(int x)   bcd bcd(double x)   bcd bcd(double x,int decimals)    zhu chong :BCD ma de jing du ke da 17 wei 。 shen shu decimals shi ke xuan de , yong lai zhi ding zhuan huan hou xiao shu dian hou de wei shu 。    tou wen jian :bcd.h   bdos()    yuan xing ∶int bdos(int fnum,unsigned dx,unsigned al)    qi zhong fnum shi xi tong tiao yong hao ;dx shi chuan gei ji cun qi DX de zhi ;al shi chuan gei ji cun qi AL de zhi ;    gong neng ∶DOS xi tong tiao yong (INT21H)    fan hui zhi ∶AX zhong de zhi   biosdisk() tiao yong BIOS ci pan qu dong cheng xu han shu    yuan xing :char biosdisk(int cmd,int drive,int head,int track,int sector,int nsects,void *buffer)    gong neng : shi yong zhong duan 0x13, zhi jie tiao yong BIOS jin xing ci pan cao zuo    shen shu :(1)cmd:   2- shu ju yi mei shan qu 512 zi jie de ge shi du ru buffer, qi shi shan qu you head、track he sector ding , shan qu shu you nsects ding 。   3- jiang buffer zhong de shu ju an mei shan qu 512 zi jie xie ru ci pan 。   4- dui shan qu jin xing shu ju xiao yan 。   6- ge shi hua yi ge ci pan bing dui hua shan qu she zhi hua biao zhi 。   8- fan hui dang qian qu dong qi shen shu zai buffer de qian 4 ge zi jie zhong 。   10- chang du , mei shan qu du ru 512 zi jie jia shang e wai de 4 ge zi jie 。   11- chang xie , mei shan qu xie ru 512 zi jie jia shang e wai de 4 ge zi jie 。   (2)drive:0- di yi ge ruan qu ;1- di er ge ruan qu ;0x80- di yi ge ying qu   (3)head: ci tou   (4)track: ci dao   (5)sector: shan qu   (6)nsects: shan qu shu   (7)buffer: shu ju huan chong qu , ding yi wei unsigned char buffer[];    fan hui zhi :0x00- cao zuo cheng gong   0x01- cuo wu ming ling   0x03- qi tu xie ju you xie bao hu de ci pan   0x07- qu dong qi shen shu she zhi cuo wu   0x10- ci pan du /CRC/ECC cuo wu    tou wen jian :bios.h    zhu : dui yu ying pan zhu yin dao ji lu shan qu head=0,track=0,sector=1 geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   biosprint() tiao yong BIOS da yin ji I/O jie kou de han shu    yuan xing :int biosprint(int cmd,int abyte,int port)    gong neng : tong guo BIOS zhong duan 0x17 zai you shen shu port zhi ding de da yin ji shang wan cheng ge zhong da yin ji gong neng 。   port=0(LPT1)   =1(LPT2);   cmd=0( da yin zi fu abyte)   1( chu shi hua da yin ji duan kou )   2( du da yin ji zhuang tai );   abyte=0-255;    fan hui zhi : da yin ji zhuang tai    wei 0( she bei chao shi ); wei 3(I/O chu cuo ); wei 4( da yin ji yi xuan ze ); wei 5( mei zhi ); wei 6( da yin ji que ren ); wei 7( bu mang )    tou wen jian :bios.h   calloc() fen pei nei cun han shu    yuan xing :void *calloc(size_t nitems,size_t size)    gong neng : zai dui zhong fen pei yi kuai nei cun , jiang gai nei cun de nei rong quan bu qing 0。    fan hui zhi : fan hui zhi xiang xin fen pei nei cun de zhi zhen 。 kong jian bu gou ze fan hui NULL。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h、calloc.h   ceil()    yuan xing ∶double ceil(double num)    gong neng ∶ qiu bu xiao yu num de zui xiao shuang jing du zheng shu    tou wen jian ∶math.h   cgets() du zi fu chuan han shu    yuan xing :char *cgets(char *str)    gong neng : cong kong zhi tai du ru yi ge zi fu chuan , bing jiang gai zi fu chuan ( he zi fu chuan chang du ) cun ru you str suo zhi xiang de di zhi zhong 。    zhu chong : zai tiao yong cgets zhi qian , bi xu jiang yao du ru de zi fu chuan zui da chang du cun ru str[0] zhong , fan hui shi str[1] bei she zhi wei shi ji du ru de zi fu shu 。 shi ji zi fu chuan nei rong cong str[2] kai shi , yi kong zi fu (\0) jie yi 。    fan hui zhi : zhi xiang str[2] de zhi zhen 。    tou wen jian :conio.h   chdir() gai bian dang qian mu lu de han shu    yuan xing :int chdir(const char *path)    gong neng : ba you path zhi ding de mu lu gai wei dang qian mu lu 。path shen shu zhong ke yi zhi ding qu dong qi hao , ru “a:\\ddd”, dan zhi shi gai bian gai qu dong qi shang de dang qian mu lu , dui dang qian huo dong qu dong qi shang de dang qian mu lu wu ying xiang 。    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )    tou wen jian :dir.h   _chmod() gai bian wen jian cun qu quan xian de han shu    yuan xing :int _chmod(const char *path,int func[,int attrib])    gong neng : du qu (func=0 shi ) huo she zhi (func=1 shi )DOS wen jian shu xing 。   attrib=FA_RDONLY zhi du   attrib=FA_HIDDEN yin cang wen jian   attrib=FA_SYSTEM xi tong wen jian   attrib=FA_LABLE juan biao   attrib=FA_DIREC mu lu   attrib=FA_ARCH dang an    fan hui zhi : shi bai shi fan hui -1。 cheng gong shi fan hui wen jian de shu xing zi jie , jia ru fan hui zhi &FA_RDONLY bu deng yu 0, ze wen jian shi zhi du wen jian ;......    tou wen jian :io.h、dos.h   chmod() gai bian wen jian cun qu quan xian de han shu    yuan xing :int chmod(const char *path,int amode)    gong neng : gen ju amode de zhi , she zhi you path suo zhi wen jian de cun qu quan xian 。   amode de zhi       cun qu quan xian   S_IWRITE       da ying xie   S_IREAD       da ying du ( zhi du )   S_IREADS_IWRITE   ke du ke xie    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )    tou wen jian :io.h、sys\stat.h   clock()    yuan xing ∶long clock(void)    gong neng ∶ ce de cong cheng xu kai shi dao tiao yong chu chu li ji suo yong de shi jian    tou wen jian ∶time.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   close() guan bi wen jian han shu    yuan xing :int close(int handle)    gong neng : guan bi you wen jian ju bing suo zhi xiang de wen jian , ju bing shi tiao yong _creat、creat、creatnew、creattemp、dup、dup2、_open huo open shi de dao de 。 gai han shu bing bu zai wen jian mo yi xie yi ge Ctrl-Z zi fu , jia ru xiang yong gai zi fu jie shu wen jian , bi xu xian shi di gei chu gai zi fu 。    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )    tou wen jian :io.h   closegraph() guan bi tu xing han shu    yuan xing :void far closegraph(void)    gong neng : shi fang tu xing xi tong fen pei de suo you nei cun , jiang ping mu hui fu dao tiao yong initgraph zhi qian de mo shi 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   cos()    yuan xing ∶double cos(double arg)    gong neng ∶ ji suan arg( hu du ) de yu xian zhi    tou wen jian ∶math.h   ctrlbrk() she zhi ctrl-break chu li cheng xu de han shu    yuan xing :void ctrlbrk(int(*handle)(void))    gong neng : xiu gai zhong duan xiang liang 0x23, shi yong xin de ctrl-break zhong duan chu li han shu 。    yong fa :ctrlbrk( han shu ming );    xian ding yi han shu :int han shu ming (void){...}    tou wen jian :dos.h   delay() zan ting han shu    yuan xing :void delay(unsigned milliseconds)    gong neng : zan ting dang qian suo zhi xing de cheng xu milliseconds hao miao 。    tou wen jian :dos.h   disable() ping bi zhong duan de hong    yuan xing :void disble(void)    gong neng : ping bi zhong duan , zhi da ying cong wai bu she bei lai de bu ke ping bi zhong duan (NMI)。    tou wen jian :dos.h   enable() kai ying jian zhong duan de hong    yuan xing :void enable(void)    gong neng : kai fang zhong duan , da ying jie shou ren he she bei chan sheng de zhong duan 。    tou wen jian :dos.h   exec() jia zai bing yun xing qi ta cheng xu de han shu zu   execl(),execle(),execlp(),execlpe(),   execv(),execve(),execvp(),execvpe()    yuan xing ∶ int execl(char *path,char *arg0,*arg1,...,*argn,NULL)   int execle(char *path,char *arg0,*arg1,...,*argn,NULL,char **env)   int execlp(char *path,char *arg0,*arg1,...,*argn,NULL)   int execlpe(char *path,char *arg0,*arg1,...,*argn,NULL,char **env)   int execv(char *path,char *argv[])   int execve(char *path,char *argv[],char **env)   int execvp(char *path,char *argv[])   int execvpe(char *path,char *argv[],char **env)    qi zhong ,path shi tiao yong de zi cheng xu de wen jian ming , zai exec hou mian de hou zhui ju you mou zhong gong neng :   p biao shi han shu neng gou zai you DOS huan jing bian liang PATH de mu lu zhong sou suo zi jin cheng wen jian , jia ru path zhong wei zhi ming wen jian suo zai mu lu , han shu jiang shou xian zai dang qian mu lu zhong zhao , ran hou zai DOS huan jing bian liang zhi ding de mu lu zhong zhao 。   l biao shi shen shu zhi zhen (arg0,...,argn) an dan du shen shu chuan song 。 dang yu xian zhi dao yao chuan song de shen shu ge shu shi , tong chang yong dai hou zhui l de han shu 。   v biao shi shen shu zhi zhen (arg0,...,argn) an zhi zhen shu zu chuan song 。 dang yao chuan song de shen shu ke bian shi , shi yong dai hou zhui v de han shu 。   e biao shi shen shu env ke yi chuan song dao zi jin cheng , gai han shu ke yong lai xiu gai zi jin cheng de huan jing 。 ruo wu e hou zhui , zi jin cheng jiang ji xu fu jin cheng de huan jing 。    zhu chong :arg0+...+argn, huo arg[0]+...+arg[n] de zong chang du bi xu xiao yu 128 zi jie 。 dang tiao yong exec han shu shi , yuan xian yi jing da kai de wen jian zai zi jin cheng zhong reng ran shi da kai de 。    gong neng : jia zai bing yun xing qi ta cheng xu , tiao yong shi bi xu you zu gou de nei cun kong jian yong yu jia zai he zhi xing zi cheng xu , zi cheng xu jiang fu gai fu cheng xu 。    tou wen jian :process.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   farcalloc() cong yuan dui zhong fen pei nei cun de han shu    yuan xing :void far *farcalloc(unsigned long nunits,unsigned long unitsz)    gong neng : cong yuan dui zhong wei bao han nunits ge yuan su de shu zu fen pei nei cun , mei yi qu unitsz zi jie chang 。    yong fa :fptr=farcalloc( shu mu ,sizeof(char));    xian ding yi :char far *fptr;    zhu chong : suo you ke yong RAM neng bei fen pei ; da yu 64K de kuai neng bei fen pei ; yong yuan zhi zhen cun qu gai kuai 。 wei mo shi bu neng yong 。    fan hui zhi : fan hui zhi xiang xin fen pei kuai de zhi zhen , ruo nei cun bu gou , ze fan hui NULL。    tou wen jian :alloc.h   farfree() cong yuan dui zhong shi fang yi kuai yi fen pei nei cun de han shu    yuan xing :void farfree(void far *block)    tou wen jian :alloc.h   farmalloc() cong yuan dui zhong fen pei nei cun de han shu    yuan xing :void far *farmalloc(unsigned long nbytes)    shi yong fang shi :fptr=farmalloc( zi jie shu );    xian ding yi char far *fptr;    gong neng : cong yuan dui zhong fen pei chang nbytes zi jie de nei cun 。    zhu chong : suo you ke yong RAM neng bei fen pei ; da yu 64K de kuai neng bei fen pei ; yong yuan zhi zhen cun qu gai kuai 。 wei mo shi bu neng yong 。    fan hui zhi : fan hui zhi xiang xin fen pei nei cun de zhi zhen , ruo nei cun bu gou , ze fan hui NULL。    tou wen jian :alloc.h   farrealloc() tiao zheng yuan dui zhong yi fen pei kuai de han shu    yuan xing :void far *farrealloc(void far *oldblock,unsigned long nbytes)    fan hui zhi : fan hui tiao zheng hou de xin nei cun di zhi 。 ruo bu neng chong xin fen pei , ze fan hui NULL。    tou wen jian :alloc.h   fclose() guan bi yi ge liu han shu    yuan xing :int fclose(FILE *stream)    shi yong fang shi :fclose( wen jian zhi zhen ming ); qi zhong wen jian zhi zhen ming =fopen();    gong neng : guan bi zhi ding de liu , guan bi qian qing chu suo you yu stream xiang lian de huan chong qu , shi fang xi tong fen pei de huan chong qu , dan you setbuf she zhi de huan chong qu bu neng zi dong shi fang 。    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );EOF( shi bai )    tou wen jian :stdio.h   fcloseall() guan bi da kai de liu de han shu    yuan xing :int fcloseall(void)    gong neng : guan bi suo you da kai de liu , you stdin、stdout、stdprn、stderr he stdaux she zhi de liu chu wai 。    fan hui zhi : guan bi liu de zong shu 。 jia ru fa xian cuo wu ze fan hui EOF。    tou wen jian :stdio.h   feof() jian cha wen jian shi fou jie shu de han shu    yuan xing ∶int feof(FILE *fp)    fan hui zhi ∶ wen jian jie shu fan hui fei 0 zhi , fou ze fan hui 0。    tou wen jian ∶stdio.h   fgets() cong liu zhong du qu yi zi fu chuan de han shu    yuan xing :char *fgets(char s[],int n,FILE *stream)    shi yong ge shi :fgets( zi fu chuan zhi zhen , zi fu ge shu , wen jian zhi zhen )    gong neng : cong shu ru liu stream zhong du ru zi fu cun dao s chuan zhong 。 dang du le n-1 ge zi fu huo peng dao huan xing fu shi , han shu ting zhi du guo cheng 。fgets zai s chuan yi bao liu huan xing zi fu 。 du ru de zui hou yi ge zi fu hou mian jia yi ge kong zi fu 。    fan hui zhi : cheng gong shi fan hui zi fu chuan shen shu s, chu cuo huo peng dao wen jian jie shu shi , fan hui NULL。    tou wen jian :stdio.h   findfirst() han shu he findnext() han shu    tiao yong fang shi : zheng xing shu =findfirst( wen jian ming ,& jie gou bian liang ming , shu xing chang shu zu he ( ru 0x26)); qi zhong ding yi strUCt ffblk jie gou bian liang ming ;    yuan xing :int findfirst(path,buffer,attr) he int findnext(buffer)   char *path;// yao jian suo de wen jian ming   struct ffblk   {   char ff_reserved[21];   char ff_attrib;// bei jian suo de wen jian shu xing   unsigned ff_ftime;// zui hou xiu gai de shi jian   //(0-4 wei : miao shu /2;5-10 wei : fen shu ;11-15 wei : xiao shi shu )   unsigned ff_fdate;// zui hou xiu gai de ri qi   //(0-4 wei : ri ;5-8 wei : yue ;9-15 wei : nian jian 1980)   long ff_fsize;// wen jian da xiao   char ff_name[13];// zu ming   }*buffer;   int attr;// yao jian suo de wen jian shu xing    gong neng : jian suo you path he attr zhi ding de wen jian , ba jie guo fan hui dao buffer。findfirst fan hui guan yu di yi ge zhi ding wen jian de xin xi ,findnext ji xu jian suo 。    fan hui zhi :0( jian suo cheng gong ),-1( mei you zhao dao zhi ding de wen jian )    shu xing chang shu :   FA_NORMAL(0x00)   han yi :Normal file, no attributes   FA_RDONLY(0x01)   han yi : zhi du   FA_HIDDEN(0x02)   han yi : yin han wen jian   FA_SYSTEM(0x04)   han yi : xi tong wen jian   FA_LABEL(0x08)   han yi : juan biao   FA_DIREC(0x10)   han yi : zi mu lu   FA_ARCH(0x20)    han yi : xiu gai de wen jian Archive    tou wen jian :dir.h(dos.h) geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   floodfill() tian chong qu yu de han shu    yuan xing :void far floodfill(int x,int y,int border)    gong neng : zai tu xing she bei shang yong yan se border wei qi lai de qu yu jiang yong dang qian tian chong yan se tian chong 。(x,y) shi dai tian chong qu yu de qi dian , ruo qi dian zai feng bi qu yu nei , ze qu yu nei bei tian chong ; ruo qi dian zai feng bi qu yu wai , ze qu yu wai bei tian chong 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   floor()    yuan xing ∶double floor(double num)    gong neng ∶ qiu bu da yu num de zui da shuang jing du zheng shu    tou wen jian ∶math.h   fnmerge() jian li wen jian lu jing han shu    yuan xing :void fnmerge(char *path,const char *drive,const char *dir, const char *name,const char *ext)    gong neng : he cheng drive:\dir\name.ext, fang zai path    tou wen jian :dir.h   fnsplit() fen jie wan zheng de lu jing ming han shu    yuan xing :int fnsplit(char *path,const char *drive,const char *dir,const char *name,const char *ext)    gong neng : ba wen jian ming lu jing path fen cheng 4 ge bu fen cun fang 。    qi zhong drive zhong you mao hao ;dir zhong you kai shi he jie yi de fan xie gang ;ext bao kuo kai shi yuan dian    fan hui zhi : jia ru you kuo zhan ming , ze   fan hui zhi &EXTENSION!=0    jia ru you wen jian ming , ze   fan hui zhi &FILENAME!=0    jia ru you mu lu ming , ze   fan hui zhi &DirectorY!=0    jia ru you qu dong qi hao , ze fan hui zhi &DIRVE!=0    tou wen jian :dir.h   fopen() da kai yi ge liu han shu    yuan xing :FILE *fopen(const char *filename,const char *mode)    gong neng : da kai yong filename zhi ding de wen jian , bing shi qi yu yi ge liu xiang lian 。    shi yong fang shi : wen jian zhi zhen ming =fopen(" wen jian ming "," chu li fang shi ")   " chu li fang shi " qu :   "rt"   da kai yi ge wen ben wen jian , zhi neng du 。   "wt"   sheng cheng yi ge wen ben wen jian , zhi neng xie 。 ruo wen jian cun zai ze bei chong xie 。   "at"   da kai yi ge wen ben wen jian , zhi neng zai wen jian yi bu tian jia 。   "rb"   da kai yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , zhi neng du 。   "wb"   sheng cheng yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , zhi neng xie 。   "ab"   da kai yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , zhi neng zai wen jian yi bu tian jia 。   "rt+"  da kai yi ge wen ben wen jian , ke du ke xie 。   "wt+"  sheng cheng yi ge wen ben wen jian , ke du ke xie 。   "at+"  da kai yi ge wen ben wen jian , ke du ke tian jia 。   "rb+"  da kai yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , ke du ke xie 。   "wb+"  sheng cheng yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , ke du ke xie 。   "ab+"  da kai yi ge er jin zhi wen jian , ke du ke tian jia 。    fan hui zhi : zhi ming liu de zhi zhen ( cheng gong shi ) huo NULL( shi bai shi )    zhu : xu xian ding yi FILE * wen jian zhi zhen ming ;   " wen jian ming " ruo yong argv[1] dai ti , ze ke shi yong ming ling xing xing shi zhi ding wen jian ming   FP_OFF() huo qu yuan di zhi pian yi liang de hong    yuan xing :unsigned FP_OFF(void far *p)    gong neng : qu de he she zhi yuan zhi zhen *p de pian yi liang    fan hui zhi : pian yi liang    tou wen jian :dos.h   fprintf() chuan song shu chu dao yi ge liu zhong de han shu    yuan xing :int fprintf(FILE *stream,const char *format[,argument,...])    gong neng :① xiang wen jian zhi zhen zhi xiang de wen jian shu chu ASCⅡ dai ma   ② xiang xian shi qi shu chu cuo wu xin xi    shi yong xing shi :   ①fprintf( wen jian zhi zhen ," shu chu ge shi ", shu chu xiang xi lie );   ②fprintf(stderr," cuo wu xin xi ");    shi yong shi li :fprintf(stream,"%d %c %f",i,c,f);    qi zhong ding yi FILE *stream;   int i; char c; float f;    fan hui zhi : cheng gong ze fan hui shu chu de zi jie shu , cuo wu ze fan hui EOF。    tou wen jian :stdio.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   FP_SEG() huo qu yuan di zhi duan zhi de hong    yuan xing :unsigned FP_SEG(void far *p)    gong neng : qu de he she zhi yuan zhi zhen *p duan di zhi zhi    fan hui zhi : duan di zhi zhi    tou wen jian :dos.h   free() shi fang yi fen pei nei cun de han shu    yuan xing :void free(void *block)    gong neng : shi fang you calloc、malloc、realloc han shu tiao yong suo fen pei de nei cun 。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h、alloc.h   fscanf() ge shi hua shu ru han shu    yuan xing :int fscanf(FILE *stream,const char *format[,address,...])    gong neng : cong yi ge liu zhong sao miao shu ru zi duan , yi ci sao miao yi ge zi fu , mei ge shu ru zi duan gen ju format suo zhi ge shi zhi shi fu ge shi hua hou , ba shu ru zi duan cun zai format hou mian you di zhi shen shu gei chu de wei zhi shang 。    shi yong ge shi :fscanf( wen jian zhi zhen ," shu ru ge shi ", shu ru xiang xi lie );    shi yong shi li :fscanf(fp,"%d",&b);    cong fp zhi xiang de wen jian zhong du qu shi jin zhi zheng shu (ASCⅡ xing shi ) fu yu bian liang b    zhu : dang wen jian zhi zhen shi stdin shi , yu scanf gong neng wan quan xiang tong    tou wen jian :stdio.h   fseek() yi dong wen jian zhi zhen han shu    yuan xing :int fseek(FILE *stream,long offset,int whence)    zuo yong : qiang zhi yi ge wen jian de wei zhi zhi zhen zhi xiang mou ge te ding de wei zhi ( shen zhi chao chu wen jian de yi bu )。    shi yong ge shi :fseek(* wen jian zhi zhen , pian yi ( chang zheng xing ), qi dian )    ding yi FILE * wen jian zhi zhen ming ;   " qi dian " qu zhi :   0 huo SEEK_SET( biao shi wen jian kai tou )   1 huo SEEK_CUR( biao shi dang qian wei zhi )   2 huo SEEK_END( biao shi wen jian yi duan )    fan hui zhi :0 biao shi cheng gong , fei 0 zhi biao shi shi bai    tou wen jian :stdio.h   fwrite() ba shen shu xie ru liu zhong de han shu    yuan xing :size_t fwrite(const void *ptr,size_t size,size_t n,FILE *stream)    gong neng : fu jia n ge shu ju xiang ( mei ge shu ju xiang chang du wei size ge zi jie ) dao zhi ding de shu chu wen jian hou , shu ju cong ptr chu kai shi tian jia 。ptr shi zhi xiang ren yi dui xiang de zhi zhen 。    fan hui zhi : tiao yong cheng gong shi fan hui shi ji xie de shu ju xiang shu , chu cuo shi fan hui yi duan zheng xing shu zhi 。    tou wen jian :stdio.h    li :fwrite(&s,sizeof(s),1,stream);    qi zhong s shi yi jie gou bian liang ,stream=fopen();   gcvt() ba shuang jing du shu zhuan hua cheng zi fu chuan de han shu    yuan xing ∶char*gcvt(value,ndigit,buf)    qi zhong ∶double value shi dai zhuan hua shu   int ndigit shi zhuan hua chang du   char *buf bao cun zhuan hua hou de di zhi    tou wen jian ∶stdlib.h   geninterrupt() zhi xing zhong duan han shu    yuan xing :void geninterrupt(int n)    tiao yong fang shi :geninterrupt( ruan zhong duan hao )    gong neng : chan sheng yi ge 8086 ruan zhong duan    zhu : xu xian xiang ji cun qi chuan di ru kou xin xi ( yong wei bian liang )    li ru    wei bian liang = yao fu de zhi ( ru kou xin xi );    tiao yong geninterrupt() han shu hou de jie shou chu kou xin xi    li ru    bian liang ming = wei bian liang    wei bian liang ∶Turbo C da ying shi yong wei bian liang zhi jie fang wen xiang ying de 8086 ji cun qi 。 wei bian liang de lei xing you liang zhong 。   ① unsigned int : _AX、 _BX、 _CX、 _DX、 _CS、 _DS、 _SS、 _ES、_SP、 _BP、 _DI、 _SI   ② unsigned char: _AL、 _AH、 _BL、 _BH、 _CL、 _CH、 _DL、 _DH geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   getc() cong liu zhong qu zi fu de hong    yuan xing :int getc(FILE *stream)    gong neng : fan hui shu ru liu stream zhong yi ge zi fu , yi dong wen jian zhi zhen shi zhi zhi xiang xia yi ge zi fu 。    shi yong ge shi : zi fu bian liang =getc( wen jian zhi zhen )   ( zheng chang qing kuang xia du qu dao dai ma zhi , du dao wen jian yi huo chu cuo shi fan hui EOF)    zhu : xu ding yi char zi fu bian liang ;FILE * wen jian zhi zhen ;    tou wen jian :stdio.h   getch() cong jian pan wu hui xian di du qu yi zi fu de han shu    gong neng : jiang jian pan shang shu ru de dan ge zi fu de zhi (ASCⅡ ma ) ma shang fu gei zi fu xing bian liang    tiao yong fang shi : zi fu xing bian liang =getch()    zhu : xu xian ding yi char zi fu xing bian liang ;    tou wen jian :conio.h   getchar() cong stdin liu zhong du qu yi ge zi fu de han shu    gong neng : jiang jian pan shang shu ru de dan ge zi fu de zhi (ASCⅡ ma ) hui che hou fu gei zi fu xing bian liang    tiao yong fang shi : zi fu xing bian liang =getchar()    zhu : xu xian ding yi char zi fu xing bian liang ;    tou wen jian :stdio.h   getcurdir() du qu zhi ding qu dong qi de dang qian mu lu de han shu    yuan xing :int getcurdir(int drive,char directory)   drive=0( que sheng );1(A qu dong qi );...   directory yong lai cun fang mu lu ming , bu bao kuo qu dong qi ming , bu yi fan xie gang kai shi 。    fan hui zhi :0( tiao yong cheng gong );1( chu cuo )    tou wen jian :dir.h   getcwd() du qu dang qian mu lu de han shu    yuan xing :char *getcwd(char *buf,int buflen)    gong neng : du qu dang qian mu lu de wan zheng lu jing ming ( bao kuo qu dong qi ming ), zui chang wei buflen ge zi jie , cun fang zai buf zhong 。 jia ru buf wei NULL, han shu jiang fen pei yi ge buflen zi jie chang de huan chong qu , yi hou ke jiang ben han shu de fan hui zhi zuo wei free han shu de shen shu lai shi fang gai huan chong qu 。    fan hui zhi : ruo buf fei kong , tiao yong cheng gong fan hui buf, chu cuo fan hui NULL; ruo buf wei NULL, fan hui zhi xiang yi jing fen pei de nei cun huan chong qu di zhi 。    tou wen jian :dir.h   getdate() du qu xi tong ri qi han shu    yuan xing :void getdate(pdate)   struct date   {   int da_year;   int da_day;   int da_mon;   };   struct date *pdate;    tou wen jian :dos.h   getdfree() du qu ci pan kong xian kong jian de han shu    yuan xing :void getdfree(drive,dtable)   unsigned char drive; qu dong qi hao (0- dang qian ;1-A;2-B;...)   struct dfree   {   unsigned df_avail;// ke shi yong de cu shu   unsigned df_total;// mei ge qu dong qi de cu shu   unsigned df_bsec;// mei ge shan qu de zi jie shu   unsigned df_sclus;// mei ge cu de shan qu shu ( chu cuo shi fan hui 0xffff)   }*dtable;    gong neng : ba you drive zhi ding de guan yu qu dong qi de xin xi fan hui dao dtable   getdisk() du qu dang qian ci pan qu dong qi hao han shu    yuan xing :int getdisk(void)    gong neng : qu de dang qian qu dong qi hao (0=A;1=B;....)    tou wen jian :dir.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   getenv() du qu huan jing bian liang de dang qian zhi de han shu    yuan xing :char *getenv(const char *name)    yong fa :s=getenv(" huan jing bian liang ming ");    xu xian ding yi char *s;    gong neng : fan hui yi gei ding de huan jing bian liang zhi , huan jing bian liang ming ke da xie huo xiao xie 。 jia ru zhi ding de bian liang zai huan jing zhong wei ding yi , ze fan hui yi kong chuan 。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   getimage() jiang zhi ding qu yu de wei tu xiang cun ru nei cun de han shu    yuan xing :void far getimage(int left,int top,int right,int bottom,void far *bitmap)    gong neng : jiang tu xiang ( ju xing qu yu ) cong ping mu kao bei dao nei cun ,*bitmap zhi xiang nei cun zhong cun fang tu xiang de qu yu 。 gai qu yu de qian liang ge zi jie yong yu cun fang ju xing de gao he kuan 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   getmaxx() fan hui ping mu shang zui da de X zuo biao zhi de han shu    yuan xing :int far getmaxx(void)    gong neng : fan hui dang qian tu xing qu dong cheng xu he tu xing mo shi xia zui da de X zuo biao zhi 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   getmaxy() fan hui ping mu shang zui da de Y zuo biao zhi de han shu    yuan xing :int far getmaxy(void)    gong neng : fan hui dang qian tu xing qu dong cheng xu he tu xing mo shi xia zui da de Y zuo biao zhi 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   getpixel() du qu xiang su yan se de han shu    yuan xing :unsigned far getpixel(int x,int y)    tou wen jian :graphics.h   getpsp()    yuan xing ∶unsigned getpsp(void)    gong neng ∶ shi yong DOS xi tong tiao yong 0x62, fan hui cheng xu duan qian zhui (PSP) de duan di zhi    tou wen jian ∶dos.h   gets() cong biao zhun shu ru liu stdio zhong du qu yi zi fu chuan de han shu    gong neng : jiang jian pan shang shu ru de zi fu chuan ma shang fu yu zi fu chuan bian liang bing xian shi chu lai    tiao yong fang shi :gets( zi fu chuan bian liang ming )    zhu : xu ding yi char * zi fu chuan bian liang ming ;   gettime() du qu xi tong shi jian de han shu    yuan xing :void gettime(ptime)   struct time   {   unsigned char ti_min;   unsigned char ti_hour;   unsigned char ti_hund;// bai fen zhi yi miao   unsigned char ti_sec;   };   struct time *ptime;   getvect() du qu zhong duan xiang liang han shu    yuan xing :void interrupt(*getvect(int interruptno))    gong neng : du ru you interruptno(0-255 zhi jian ) suo zhi ding de zhong duan xiang liang zhi , bing ba gai zhong duan xiang liang zhi zuo wei zhong duan han shu de yuan zhi zhen fan hui 。    fan hui zhi : zhi ding zhong duan xiang liang de dang qian 4 zi jie zhi 。    tou wen jian :dos.h    shi yong shi li :oldfunc=getvect(5);    xian ding yi void interrupt(*oldfunc)();    yong hou hui fu setvect(5,oldfunc);   getx() fan hui dang qian tu xing fang shi xia wei zhi de X zuo biao zhi de han shu    yuan xing :int far getx(void);    tou wen jian :graphics.h   gety() fan hui dang qian tu xing fang shi xia wei zhi de Y zuo biao zhi de han shu    yuan xing :int far gety(void);    tou wen jian :graphics.h   imagesize() fan hui bao cun tu xiang huan chong qu da xiao de han shu    yuan xing :unsigned far imagesize(int left,int top,int right,int bottom)    gong neng : que ding bao cun tu xiang suo xu de cun chu qu da xiao 。    fan hui zhi : fan hui cun chu qu de da xiao ( zi jie ), ruo suo xu nei cun da yu deng yu 64K-1 zi jie , ze fan hui 0xffff(-1)。    tou wen jian :graphics.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   initgraph() xian shi mo shi kong zhi han shu ( chu shi hua tu xing xi tong han shu )    gong neng : ba tu xing shi pei qi she zhi wei yi zhong tu xing mo shi , jiang xuan ze de tu xing qu dong cheng xu ( zai BGI wen jian zhong ) zhuang ru dao nei cun 。    tiao yong fang shi :   void far initgraph(int far *driver,int far *mode,char far*path)    qi zhong : *driver ke yi shi shu zhi (0-10), ye ke shi fu hao zhi (DETECT、CGA、MCGA、EGA、EGA64、EGAMONO、RESERVED、HERCMONO、ATT400、VGA、 PC3270)。   *mode shen shu cong tu xing xi tong wei ge zhong chang yong de tu xing shi pei qi she zhi de tu xing mo shi zhong (CGAC0、…、IBM8514HI-- jian tou wen jian graphics.h) xuan qu 。 chang yong de you :VGAMED huo 1(640×350)( deng xiao yu BIOS de mo shi 15)、EGAHI huo 1(640×350) deng 。   path zhi xiang de zi fu chuan wei zhuang ru qu dong cheng xu de lu jing 。 jia ru que sheng lu jing , qu dong cheng xu zai dang qian mu lu 。    jie shu fang fa :   ①void far closegraph() han shu yong yu dang cheng xu huan yao ji xu zai zi fu mo xia yun xing shi 。 ta shi fang you tu xing han shu suo zhan yong de nei cun , tong shi ba ping mu mo shi hui fu wei tiao yong initgraph() zhi qian de mo shi 。   ②void far restorecrtmode() han shu yong yu jie shu yun xing 。 jiang tu xing shi pei qi she zhi dao yuan lai de mo shi 。 ren he fen pei de nei cun dou jiang zi dong shi fang 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   inport() cong duan kou zhong du ru yi ge zi de han shu    yuan xing :int inport(int portid)    tiao yong fang shi : zheng xing bian liang =inport(0x duan kou hao );    gong neng : cong zhi ding duan kou di zhi du yi ge zi 。    tou wen jian :dos.h   inportb() cong duan kou du ru yi ge zi jie de han shu    yuan xing :unsigned char inportb(int portid)    tiao yong fang shi : zi fu bian liang =inportb(0x duan kou hao );    gong neng : cong zhi ding duan kou di zhi du yi ge zi jie 。    tou wen jian :dos.h   int86() zhi xing zhong duan han shu ( tiao yong 8086 ruan zhong duan han shu )    yuan xing :int int86(int intno,union REGS *inregs,union REGS *outregs)    tiao yong fang shi :int86( zhong duan hao ,& shu ru zhi zhen ming ,& shu chu zhi zhen ming )    fan hui zhi : zhong duan chu li jie shu shi de AX ji cun qi de zhi , cuo wu shi outregs->x.cflag!=0    gong neng : han shu int86() yong lai zhi xing zhi ding de 8086 ruan zhong duan 。 shou xian ba shu ru zhi zhen suo zhi de gong yong ti zhong de nei rong kao bei dao CPU de ji cun qi zhong , sui ji chan sheng dui ying de zhong duan , fan hui hou jiang CPU ji cun qi (AX) de nei rong kao bei dao shu chu zhi zhen zhi xiang de gong yong ti zhong 。 zai shi yong int86() han shu jin xing BIOS jie kou de xi tong tiao yong shi , you de zhong duan tiao yong she you ruo gan xuan ze xiang , zhe xie xuan ze xiang ke yi gen ju tiao yong shi AH ji cun qi zhong de zhi lai jin xing fang wen 。    zhu :1. xu xian ding yi union REGS shu ru zhi zhen ming , shu chu zhi zhen ming ;   2. xiang ji cun qi chuan di ru kou xin xi    shu ru zhi zhen ming .x. ji cun qi ming = yao fu de zhi ( ru kou xin xi );   3. tiao yong int86 hou de jie shou chu kou xin xi    bian liang ming = shu chu zhi zhen ming .x. ji cun qi ming   4.REGS de ding yi ( zai dos.h zhong ):   struct WordREGS{unsigned int ax, bx, cx, dx, si, di, cflag, flags;}   struct BYTEREGS{unsigned char al, ah, bl, bh, cl, ch, dl, dh;}   union REGS{struct WORDREGS x;struct BYTEREGS h;}    tou wen jian :dos.h   int86x() zhi xing zhong duan han shu ( tong yong 8086 ruan zhong duan jie kou han shu )    tou wen jian :dos.h    yuan xing :int int86x(int intno,union REGS *inregs,union REGS *outregs,struct SREGS * segregs)    tiao yong fang shi :int86x( zhong duan hao ,& shu ru zhi zhen ming ,& shu chu zhi zhen ming ,& duan ji cun qi zhi zhen ming );    zhu 1: xu xian ding yi union REGS shu ru zhi zhen ming , shu chu zhi zhen ming ;   union REGS shi yi tu   struct     struct   WORDREGS    BYTEREGS   ┌  ┌───────┬──────┐──┬──  ┐   │  │       │   al   │ 1 byte   │   │  │   ax   ├──────┤──┴─ 2 bytes   │  │       │   ah   │       │   │  ├───────┼──────┤─────  ┘   │  │       │   bl   │   │  │   bx   ├──────┤   │  │       │   bh   │   │  ├───────┼──────┤   │  │       │   cl   │   │  │   cx   ├──────┤   │  │       │   ch   │   │  ├───────┼──────┤   │  │       │   dl   │   │  │   dx   ├──────┤   │  │       │   dh   │   union regs├───────┼──────┤   │  │       │      │   │  │   si   │      │   │  │       │      │   │  ├───────┤      │   │  │       │      │   │  │   di   │      │   │  │       │      │   │  ├───────┤      │   │  │       │      │   │  │  cflag   │      │   │  │       │      │   │  ├───────┤      │   │  │       │      │   │  │  flags   │      │   │  │       │      │   └  └───────┴──────┘   │   x  liang ge jie gou bian liang  h  │   └──   gong xiang tong yi cun chu yu  ──┘    qi zhong zi duan flags dui ying yu biao zhi ji cun qi 。 zi duan cflag jin dui ying yu jin wei biao zhi wei , han shu zai tiao yong shi bu yong gai zi duan , zhi zai fan hui shi she zhi zhe ge zi duan , yin wei xu duo BIOS fu wu dou shi tong guo jin wei biao zhi wei 0 huan shi 1 lai biao shi cheng gong huan shi shi bai 。    zhu 2: xu xian ding yi struct SREGS duan ji cun qi zhi zhen ming ;    jie gou SREGS ding yi ru xia   struct SREGS {unsigned int es,cs,ss,ds}    han shu zhi yong le gai jie gou zhong de duan ji cun qi DS he ES。 tiao yong shi gen ju ta men de zhi she zhi DS he ES, tong shi ba DS he ES yuan lai de zhi bao cun zai zhe ge jie gou zhong , fan hui shi zai hui fu DS he ES wei yuan lai de zhi , zhe jiu da ying cheng xu shi yong yuan zhi zhen huo da shu ju bian yi mo shi 。    gai han shu zhi quan ju bian liang _doserrno deng yu ji cun qi AX zhong de zhi , qi fan hui zhi ye deng yu AX zhong de zhi 。    zhu 3: xiang ji cun qi chuan di ru kou xin xi    shu ru zhi zhen ming .x. ji cun qi ming = yao fu de zhi ( ru kou xin xi );    zhu 4: tiao yong int86x hou de jie shou chu kou xin xi    bian liang ming = shu chu zhi zhen ming .x. ji cun qi ming   intdos() tong yong dos zhong duan jie kou han shu    yuan xing :int intdos(inregs,outregs)   union REGS *inregs;// tiao yong shi de ge ji cun qi de zhi   union REGS *outregs;// fan hui ji cun qi de zhi    gong neng : chan sheng DOS ruan zhong duan    zhu chong : jia ru xu yao gong neng hao , ze zhuang ru AH; jia ru xu yao zi gong neng hao , ze zhuang ru AL。    tou wen jian :dos.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   intdosx() tong yong dos zhong duan jie kou han shu    yuan xing :int intdosx(inregs,outregs,segregs)   union REGS *inregs; tiao yong shi de ge ji cun qi de zhi   union REGS *outregs; fan hui ji cun qi de zhi   struct SREGS *seregs; tiao yong shi de duan ji cun qi de zhi ( huan she zhi fan hui shi de zhi )    gong neng : chan sheng DOS ruan zhong duan    tou wen jian :dos.h   intr() zhi xing 8086 ruan zhong duan han shu ( gai bian ruan zhong duan jie kou han shu )    yuan xing :void intr(int intno,struct REGPACK *preg)    tiao yong fang shi :intr( zhong duan hao ,& jie gou bian liang ming )    zhu 1: jie gou REGPACK ding yi ru xia   struct REGPACK   {   unsigned r_ax,r_bx,r_cx,r_dx;   unsigned r_bp,r_si,r_di,r_ds,r_es,r_flag;}    zhu 2: shi yong shi xian ding yi yi ge jie gou bian liang   struct REGPACK jie gou bian liang ming ;    zhu 3: ru kou he chu kou yong tong yi ge jie gou bian liang lai chuan di ji cun qi de zhi 。    jie gou bian liang ming .r_ax= yao fu de zhi ;   ......   intr( zhong duan hao ,& jie gou bian liang ming );    mou bian liang = jie gou bian liang ming .r_ax;    tou wen jian :dos.h   itoa() ba zheng xing shu zhuan huan wei zi fu chuan de han shu    yuan xing :char *itoa(int value,char *string,int radix)    gong neng : ba value de zhi zhuan huan wei yi NULL jie shu de zi fu chuan , bing ba jie guo cun zai string zhong 。radix shi zhuan huan de ji shu zhi , zai 2 dao 36 zhi jian 。 fen pei gei string de kong jian bi xu ke rong na fan hui de suo you zi jie ( zui duo 17 zi jie )。    fan hui zhi : zhi xiang string de zhi zhen    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   kbhit() jian cha dang qian an xia de jian de han shu    yuan xing :int kbhit(void)    gong neng : jian cha an xia de jian shi fou you xiao , ruo you xiao ze ke yong getch() huo getche() du qu 。    fan hui zhi : jia ru an jian you xiao , fan hui yi fei ling zhi , fou ze fan hui 0。    tou wen jian :conio.h   keep() zhu liu bing tui chu han shu    yuan xing :void keep(unsigned char status,unsigned size)    gong neng : yong yu an zhuang yi ge TSR cheng xu ( shi yong DOS gong neng tiao yong 0x31)。 chu kou zhuang tai she zhi wei zai status zhong de zhi , cheng xu zhan yong cun chu kong jian wei size, bing shi fang nei cun de qi yu bu fen 。    tou wen jian :dos.h   log()    yuan xing ∶double log(double num)    gong neng ∶ qiu num de zi ran dui shu zhi    tou wen jian ∶math.h   log10()    yuan xing ∶double log10(double num)    gong neng ∶ qiu num yi 10 wei di de dui shu zhi    tou wen jian ∶math.h   _lrotl() jiang yi ge wu fu hao chang zheng xing shu zuo xun huan yi wei de han shu    yuan xing :unsigned long _lrotl(unsigned long value,int count)    gong neng : jiang value xiang zuo xun huan yi dong count wei 。    fan hui zhi : jiang value xiang zuo xun huan yi dong count wei hou de zhi 。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   _lrotr() jiang yi ge wu fu hao chang zheng xing shu you xun huan yi wei de han shu    yuan xing :unsigned long _lrotr(unsigned long value,int count)    gong neng : jiang value xiang you xun huan yi dong count wei 。    fan hui zhi : jiang value xiang you xun huan yi dong count wei hou de zhi 。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   lseek() yi dong wen jian zhi zhen han shu    yuan xing :long lseek(int handle,long offset,int fromwhere)   handle=open() han shu de fan hui zhi ( wen jian ju bing );   fromwhere= wen jian wei zhi   (SEEK_SET(0) cong wen jian tou wei zhi ;SEEK_CUR(1) cong dang qian wen jian zhi zhen wei zhi ;SEEK_END(2) cong wen jian jie yi wei zhi )    gong neng : ba wen jian zhi zhen yi dong dao fromwhere suo zhi de di zhi jia shang offset xin wei zhi de pian yi shang 。    tou wen jian :io.h    fan hui zhi : zhi zhen xin wei zhi de pian yi liang ( xiang dui yu wen jian kai shi chu ), chu cuo shi fan hui -1L。   ltoa() ba chang zheng xing shu zhuan huan wei zi fu chuan de han shu    yuan xing :char *ltoa(long value,char *string,int radix)    gong neng : ba value de zhi zhuan huan wei yi NULL jie shu de zi fu chuan , bing ba jie guo cun zai string zhong 。radix shi zhuan huan de ji shu zhi , zai 2 dao 36 zhi jian 。 fen pei gei string de kong jian bi xu ke rong na fan hui de suo you zi jie ( zui duo 33 zi jie )。    fan hui zhi : zhi xiang string de zhi zhen    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   malloc() fen pei nei cun han shu    yuan xing :void *malloc(size_t size)    gong neng : cong dui zhong fen pei da xiao wei size zi jie de kuai 。win32 ye shi yong 。    fan hui zhi : fan hui xin fen pei nei cun de di zhi , ruo wu zu gou nei cun , fan hui NULL。    tou wen jian :alloc.h、stdlib.h   mkdir() chuang jian mu lu han shu    yuan xing :int mkdir(const char *path)    gong neng : an gei ding de lu jing jian li yi ge xin de mu lu    tou wen jian :dir.h    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )   mktemp() jian li yi ge wei yi de wen jian ming de han shu    yuan xing :char *mktemp(char *template)    gong neng : shi yong yi ge wei yi de wen jian ming lai ti huan zi fu chuan template, bing fan hui template。    tou wen jian :dir.h   MK_FP() she zhi yi ge yuan zhi zhen de hong    yuan xing :void far *MK_FP(unsigned seg,unsigned ofs)    gong neng : tong guo duan zhi (seg) he pian yi liang (ofs) jian li yi ge yuan zhi zhen    fan hui zhi : yuan zhi zhen    tou wen jian :dos.h   movedata() kao bei shu ju han shu    yuan xing :void movedata(unsigned srcseg,unsigned srcoff,unsigned dstseg,unsigned dstoff,size_t n)    gong neng : cong yuan di zhi (srcseg:srcoff) kao bei n ge zi jie de shu ju dao mu biao di zhi (dstseg:dstoff)。    tou wen jian :mem.h、string.h   _open() da kai yi ge wen jian jin xing du xie de han shu    yuan xing :int _open(path,oflags)   char *path;// yi jian li wen jian de lu jing ming   int oflags;// fang shi    gong neng : da kai you path zhi ding de wen jian , fan hui wen jian de ju bing    fan hui zhi :0( zheng chang jie shu );-1( cuo wu )    tou wen jian :fcntl.h、io.h   open() da kai wen jian jin xing du xie de han shu    yuan xing :int open(const char *path,int Access[,unsigned mode])    shi yong fang fa : wen jian ju bing =open(" wen jian ming ", da kai mo shi da kai mo shi );    gong neng : da kai path zhi ding de wen jian , gen ju access zhi ding de mo shi zhi du xie 。   access mo shi :   O_RDONLY  yi zhi du fang shi da kai   O_WRONLY  yi zhi xie fang shi da kai   O_RDOWR  yi du xie fang shi da kai    yi shang biao zhi zhi neng shi yong yi ge , yi xia ke yi yong zu he shi yong   O_NDELAY   O_APPEND  ruo zhi wei , mei ci xie cao zuo qian dou shi wen jian zhi zhen zhi dao wen jian mo yi   O_CREAT  ruo wen jian bu cun zai ze chuang jian   O_TRUNC  ruo wen jian yi cun zai , ze jiang wen jian chang du jie wei 0   O_EXCL   zhi he O_CREAT yi qi shi yong , ruo wen jian yi jing cun zai , fan hui cuo wu dai ma   O_BINARY  yi er jin zhi fang shi da kai   O_TEXT   yi wen ben fang shi da kai    jia ru shi yong le O_CREAT fang shi , ze xu yao ti gong shen shu mode   (S_IWRITE ke xie ;S_IREAD ke du ;S_IREADS_IWRITE ke du xie )    fan hui zhi : wen jian ju bing ( cheng gong shi );-1( shi bai shi )。    cheng gong shi , wen jian zhi zhen zhi xiang wen jian tou 。    tou wen jian :fcntl.h、io.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   outport() shu chu yi ge zi dao duan kou zhong de han shu    yuan xing :void outport(int portid,int value)    tiao yong fang shi :outport(0x duan kou hao , yao shu chu de zi );    gong neng : wang zhi ding duan kou di zhi shu chu yi ge zi 。    tou wen jian :dos.h   outportb() shu chu yi ge zi jie dao duan kou zhong de han shu    yuan xing :void outportb(int portid,unsigned char value)    tiao yong fang shi :outportb(0x duan kou hao , yao shu chu de zi jie );    gong neng : wang zhi ding duan kou di zhi shu chu yi ge zi jie 。    fu :PC I/O di zhi fen pei   PC zhi yong le 10 wei di zhi xian (A0-A9) jin xing yi ma , qi xun zhi de fan wei wei 0H-3FFH, gong you 1024 ge I/O di zhi 。 zhe 1024 ge di zhi zhong qian ban duan (A9=0, fan wei wei 0H-1FFH) shi shu yu zhu ji ban I/O yi ma , hou ban duan (A9=1, fan wei wei 200H-3FFH) ze shi yong lai kuo zhan cha cao shang de I/O yi ma yong 。   I/O duan kou gong neng biao   ———————————————————————————   I/O di zhi   gong neng 、 yong tu   ———————————————————————————   0    DMA tong dao 0, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi (DMA kong zhi qi 1(8237))   1    DMA tong dao 0, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi   2    DMA tong dao 1, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi   3    DMA tong dao 1, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi   4    DMA tong dao 2, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi   5    DMA tong dao 2, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi   6    DMA tong dao 3, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi   7    DMA tong dao 3, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi   8    DMA tong dao 0-3 de zhuang tai ji cun qi   AH    DMA tong dao 0-3 de ping bi ji cun qi   BH    DMA tong dao 0-3 de fang shi ji cun qi   CH    DMA qing chu zi jie zhi zhen   DH    DMA zhu qing chu zi jie   EH    DMA tong dao 0-3 de qing ping bi ji cun qi   FH    DMA tong dao 0-3 de xie ping bi ji cun qi   19H   DMA qi shi ji cun qi   20H-3FH  ke bian cheng zhong duan kong zhi qi 1(8259) shi yong   40H    ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi (8253) shi yong , du / xie ji shu qi 0   41H    ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi ji cun qi   42H    ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi duo xiang ji cun qi   43H    ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi , kong zhi zi ji cun qi   44H    ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi , duo xiang ji cun qi (AT)   47H    ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi , ji shu qi 0 de kong zhi zi ji cun qi   48H-5FH  ke bian cheng zhong duan ji shi qi shi yong   60H-61H  jian pan shu ru shu ju huan chong qu   61H   AT:8042 jian pan kong zhi ji cun qi /XT:8255 shu chu ji cun qi   62H   8255 shu ru ji cun qi   63H   8255 ming ling fang shi ji cun qi   64H   8042 jian pan shu ru huan chong qu /8042 zhuang tai   65H-6FH 8255/8042 zhuan yong   70H   CMOS RAM di zhi ji cun qi   71H   CMOS RAM shu ju ji cun qi   80H    sheng chan ce shi duan kou   81H   DMA tong dao 2, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi   82H   DMA tong dao 3, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi   83H   DMA tong dao 1, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi   87H   DMA tong dao 0, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi   89H   DMA tong dao 6, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi   8AH   DMA tong dao 7, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi   8BH   DMA tong dao 5, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi   8FH   DMA tong dao 4, ye biao di zhi ji cun qi   93H-9FH DMA kong zhi qi zhuan yong   A0H   NM1 ping bi ji cun qi / ke bian cheng zhong duan kong zhi qi 2   A1H    ke bian cheng zhong duan kong zhi qi 2 ping bi   C0H   DMA tong dao 0, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi (DMA kong zhi qi 2(8237))   C2H   DMA tong dao 0, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi   C4H   DMA tong dao 1, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi   C6H   DMA tong dao 1, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi   C8H   DMA tong dao 2, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi   CAH   DMA tong dao 2, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi   CCH   DMA tong dao 3, nei cun di zhi ji cun qi   CEH   DMA tong dao 3, chuan shu ji shu ji cun qi   D0H   DMA zhuang tai ji cun qi   D2H   DMA xie qing qiu ji cun qi   D4H   DMA ping bi ji cun qi   D6H   DMA fang shi ji cun qi   D8H   DMA qing chu zi jie zhi zhen   DAH   DMA zhu qing   DCH   DMA qing ping bi ji cun qi   DEH   DMA xie ping bi ji cun qi   DFH-EFH  bao liu   F0H-FFH  xie chu li qi shi yong   100H-16FH bao liu   170H   1 hao ying pan shu ju ji cun qi   171H   1 hao ying pan cuo wu ji cun qi   172H   1 hao ying pan shu ju shan qu ji shu   173H   1 hao ying pan shan qu shu   174H   1 hao ying pan zhu mian ( di zi jie )   175H   1 hao ying pan zhu mian ( gao zi jie )   176H   1 hao ying pan qu dong qi / ci tou ji cun qi   177H   1 hao ying pan zhuang tai ji cun qi   1F0H   0 hao ying pan shu ju ji cun qi   1F1H   0 hao ying pan cuo wu ji cun qi   1F2H   0 hao ying pan shu ju shan qu ji shu   1F3H   0 hao ying pan shan qu shu   1F4H   0 hao ying pan zhu mian ( di zi jie )   1F5H   0 hao ying pan zhu mian ( gao zi jie )   1F6H   0 hao ying pan qu dong qi / ci tou ji cun qi   1F7H   0 hao ying pan zhuang tai ji cun qi   1F9H-1FFH bao liu   200H-20FH you xi kong zhi duan kou   210H-21FH kuo zhan dan yuan   278H   3 hao bing xing kou , shu ju duan kou   279H   3 hao bing xing kou , zhuang tai duan kou   27AH   3 hao bing xing kou , kong zhi duan kou   2B0H-2DFH bao liu   2E0H   EGA/VGA shi yong   2E1H   GPIP(0 hao shi pei qi )   2E2H   shu ju huo qu (0 hao shi pei qi )   2E3H   shu ju huo qu (1 hao shi pei qi )   2E4H-2F7H bao liu   2F8H   2 hao chuan xing kou , fa song / bao chi ji cun qi (RS232 jie kou ka 2)   2F9H   2 hao chuan xing kou , zhong duan you xiao ji cun qi   2FAH   2 hao chuan xing kou , zhong duan ID ji cun qi   2FBH   2 hao chuan xing kou , xian kong zhi ji cun qi   2FCH   2 hao chuan xing kou , tiao zhi jie tiao kong zhi ji cun qi   2FDH   2 hao chuan xing kou , xian zhuang tai ji cun qi   2FEH   2 hao chuan xing kou , tiao zhi jie tiao zhuang tai ji cun qi   2FFH   bao liu   300H-31FH yuan xing ka   320H   ying pan shi pei qi ji cun qi   322H   ying pan shi pei qi kong zhi / zhuang tai ji cun qi   324H   ying pan shi pei qi ti shi / zhong duan zhuang tai ji cun qi   325H-347H bao liu   348H-357H DCA3278   366H-36FH PC wang luo   372H    ruan pan shi pei qi shu ju shu chu / zhuang tai ji cun qi   375H-376H  ruan pan shi pei qi shu ju ji cun qi   377H    ruan pan shi pei qi shu ju shu ru ji cun qi   378H    2 hao bing xing kou , shu ju duan kou   379H    2 hao bing xing kou , zhuang tai duan kou   37AH    2 hao bing xing kou , kong zhi duan kou   380H-38FH SDLC ji BSC tong xun   390H-393H Cluster shi pei qi 0   3A0H-3AFH BSC tong xun   3B0H-3B H MDA shi pin ji cun qi   3BCH    1 hao bing xing kou , shu ju duan kou   3BDH    1 hao bing xing kou , zhuang tai duan kou   3BEH    1 hao bing xing kou , kong zhi duan kou   3C0H-3CFH EGA/VGA shi pin ji cun qi   3D0H-3D7H CGA shi pin ji cun qi   3F0H-3F7H  ruan pan kong zhi qi ji cun qi   3F8H    1 hao chuan xing kou , fa song / bao chi ji cun qi (RS232 jie kou ka 1)   3F9H    1 hao chuan xing kou , zhong duan you xiao ji cun qi   3FAH    1 hao chuan xing kou , zhong duan ID ji cun qi   3FBH    1 hao chuan xing kou , xian kong zhi ji cun qi   3FCH    1 hao chuan xing kou , tiao zhi jie tiao kong zhi ji cun qi   3FDH    1 hao chuan xing kou , xian zhuang tai ji cun qi   3FEH    1 hao chuan xing kou , tiao zhi jie tiao zhuang tai ji cun qi   3FFH    bao liu   —————————————————————————- geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   outtextxy() zai zhi ding wei zhi xian shi yi zi fu chuan de han shu    yuan xing :void far outtextxy(int x,int y,char far *textstring)    gong neng : an zhao dang qian dui qi fang shi he dang qian zi ti 、 fang xiang 、 da xiao zai shi qu zhong gei ding wei zhi xian shi yi wen ben zi fu chuan 。    zhu chong : yong textwidth he textheight han shu jue ding zi fu chuan de chi cun da xiao 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   peek() fan hui zhi ding nei cun zhong zi de han shu    yuan xing :int peek(int seg,unsigned offset)    gong neng : fan hui di zhi wei seg:offset de zi dan yuan de zhi    tou wen jian :dos.h   peekb() fan hui zhi ding nei cun zhong zi jie de han shu    yuan xing :char peekb(int seg,unsigned offset)    gong neng : fan hui di zhi wei seg:offset de zi jie dan yuan de zhi   poke() zai zhi ding de nei cun zhong cun chu yi ge zi de han shu    yuan xing :void poke(int seg,unsigned offset,int word)    gong neng : ba word de 16 wei zhi fang dao di zhi wei seg:offset de zi dan yuan zhong   pokeb() zai zhi ding de nei cun zhong cun chu yi ge zi jie de han shu    yuan xing :void pokeb(int seg,unsigned offset,int byte)    gong neng : ba byte de 8 wei zhi fang dao di zhi wei seg:offset de zi jie dan yuan zhong   pow()    yuan xing ∶double pow(double b,double eXP)    gong neng ∶ qiu yi b wei di de exp ci mi de zhi    tou wen jian ∶math.h   printf() xie ge shi hua shu chu dao stdout de han shu    shi yong fang shi : li   ①printf("%f", shi xing bian liang );   ②printf("%f",(* han shu zhi zhen ming )( shen shu ));   ③printf("%c", zi fu bian liang );   ④printf("%c",* zi fu chuan bian liang ming ji zi fu chuan di zhi );    zhi xian shi zi fu chuan de di yi ge zi fu 。   ⑤printf("%s", zi fu chuan shu zu ming ji zi fu chuan shu zu di zhi );   ⑥printf("%-10s", zi fu chuan bian liang ming );    xian shi zi fu chuan shi xian ding shi wei ( bu zu ze bu kong ge ), bing kao zuo duan dui qi 。   ⑦printf("%s",* er ji zhi zhen bian liang );   ⑧printf(" zi fu chuan %05d\n", zheng xing bian liang );    xian xian shi zi fu chuan , ran hou xian shi zheng xing bian liang de zhi ( xian wu wei , bu zu ze bu ling ), zui hou huan xing 。    zhu :   1.① xu xian ding yi float shi xing bian liang ;   ② xu xian ding yi float (* han shu zhi zhen ming )(); bing you xiang ying de han shu   ③ xu xian ding yi char zi fu bian liang =' dan ge zi fu ';   ④⑥ xu xian ding yi char * zi fu chuan bian liang ming ; bing fu zhi   ⑤ xu xian ding yi char zi fu chuan shu zu ming []=" zi fu chuan ";   ⑦ xu xian ding yi char ** er ji zhi zhen bian liang   2. qi ta zhuan huan zi fu ( zai % hou ) you   ① o zheng xing shu yi wu fu hao de ba jin zhi xing shi shu chu   ② x zheng xing shu he wei bian liang yi wu fu hao de shi liu jin zhi xing shi shu chu   ③ u zheng xing shu yi wu fu hao de shi jin zhi xing shi shu chu   ④ e fu dian shu huo shuang jing du fu dian shu yi zhi shu xing shi shu chu   ⑤ g xuan yong e huo f ge shi zhong shu chu wei shu jiao duan de xing shi   ⑥ p yi wu fu hao de shi liu jin zhi xing shi shu chu bian liang de di zhi 。 ruo yao shu chu han shu de di zhi , yuan zhi zhen yong Fp; jin zhi zhen yong Np。   putch() xiang ping mu shu chu zi fu de han shu    shi yong fang shi :   ① putch(' zhuan yi zi fu ');   ② putch(' dan ge zi fu ');   ③ putch( zi fu bian liang );    zhu :③ xu xian ding yi char zi fu bian liang =' dan ge zi fu ';    tou wen jian :conio.h   putchar() zai stdout shang shu chu zi fu de hong    yuan xing :int putchar(int c)    fan hui zhi : cheng gong fan hui zi fu c, shi bai fan hui EOF。    tou wen jian :stdio.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   putenv() jiang zi fu chuan fang ru dang qian huan jing zhong de han shu    yuan xing :int putenv(const char *name)    yong fa li :putenv("PATH=C:\B\TC");    gong neng : ba zi fu chuan name jia dao dang qian cheng xu yun xing de huan jing zhong 。 dang cheng xu jie shu hou , yuan huan jing jiang de dao hui fu 。    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   putimage() chong xin xie ping han shu ( shu chu yi ge wei tu xiang dao tu xing ping mu shang de han shu )    gong neng : jiang yong getimage() han shu chu cun zai buf suo zhi xiang de nei cun qu yu de tu xing shu chu dao ping mu shang 。    yuan xing :   void far putimage(int left,int top,void far *buf,int op)    qi zhong op de zhi jue ding le tu xing yi he zhong fang shi xie dao ping mu shang 。   COPY_PUT huo 0 yuan yang fu zhi   XOR_PUT huo 1 yu ping mu tu xing qu “ yi huo ” hou xie ru   OR_PUT huo 2 yu ping mu tu xing qu “ huo ” hou xie ru   AND_PUT huo 3 yu ping mu tu xing qu “ yu ” hou xie ru   NOT_PUT huo 4 fu zhi yuan tu xing de “ ni ”    shi yong bu tong de fang shi jiang tu xing xie dao ping mu shang , ke yi shi xian tu xing bian huan 。 li ru , cai yong yi huo fang shi zai yuan shi wei zhi chong xie , na me , yuan tu jiang xiao shi 。 jia ru zai shi yong fu zhi fang shi (COPY_PUT) zai yi ge xin de di fang chong xian gai tu xing , jiu chan sheng le tu xing de yi dong 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   putpixel() xie xiang su dian han shu    yuan xing :void far putpixel(int x,int y,int color)    tou wen jian :graphics.h   puts() shu chu yi zi fu chuan dao stdout( biao zhun shu chu ) de han shu    shi yong fang shi :   ① puts(" zi fu chuan ");   ② puts( zi fu chuan bian liang ming ji zi fu chuan bian liang de di zhi )    zhu :② xu xian ding yi char * zi fu chuan bian liang ming =" zi fu chuan ";    tou wen jian :stdio.h   _read() du wen jian han shu    yuan xing :int _read(handle,buffer,count)   int handle;// wen jian ju bing   void *buffer;// cun fang du chu shu ju de huan chong qu   unsigned count;// yi ci du chu de zi jie shu    gong neng : cong you handle zhi ding de wen jian zhong du qu you count zhi ding zi jie shu de shu ju dao buffer    fan hui zhi :0-0xfffe( shi ji du chu de zi jie shu );-1( cuo wu )    tou wen jian :io.h   read() du wen jian han shu    yuan xing :int read(int handle,void *buf,unsigned len)    gong neng : cong yu handle( cong creat、open、dup huo dup2 tiao yong zhong de dao de ju bing ) xiang lian de wen jian zhong du qu len zi jie dao you buf suo zhi de huan chong qu zhong 。 dui yu yi wen ben fang shi da kai de wen jian ,read shan chu du ru shu ju zhong de hui che fu 。 dang du dao Ctrl-Z zi fu shi fan hui wen jian jie shu 。 dui yu ci pan wen jian ,read cong dang qian wen jian zhi zhen chu kai shi du qu shu ju 。 zai du cao zuo wan cheng hou , wen jian zhi zhen zeng liang wei du ru de zi jie shu 。 dui yu she bei , zhi jie cong she bei zhong du zi jie 。    fan hui zhi : du ru huan chong qu de zi jie shu , jia ru wen jian yi wen ben fang shi da kai , ze bu bao kuo hui che fu he Ctrl-Z zi fu 。    tou wen jian :io.h   realloc() chong xin fen pei nei cun han shu    yuan xing :void *realloc(void *block,size_t size)   block zhi xiang yong malloc、calloc huo realloc yi de dao de nei cun 。   size shi chong xin fen pei de zi jie 。    fan hui zhi : chong fen pei de kuai di zhi 。 ruo bu neng chong fen pei , ze fan hui NULL。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   rectangle() hua yi ge ju xing de han shu    yuan xing :void far rectangle(int left,int top,int right,int bottom)    gong neng : yong dang qian xian xing 、 kuan du he hua xian yan se hui zhi yi ge ju xing 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   remove() shan chu yi ge wen jian de han shu    yuan xing :int remove(const char *filename)    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )    tou wen jian :stdio.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   rename() wen jian gai ming han shu    yuan xing :int rename(const char *oldname,const char *newname)    zhu chong : jia ru newname zhong bao han le yi ge qu dong qi zhi shi fu , ta bi xu yu oldname zhong gei chu de zhi shi fu xiang tong 。oldname he newname zhong de mu lu ke yi bu tong , yin ci rename han shu ba wen jian cong yi ge mu lu yi dao ling yi ge mu lu 。 bu da ying shi yong tong pei fu 。    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( shi bai )   restorecrtmode() hui fu ping mu shi pin mo shi wei tiao yong initgraph qian de she zhi de han shu    yuan xing :void far restorecrtmode(void)    tou wen jian :graphics.h   rmdir() shan chu mu lu han shu    yuan xing :int rmdir(const char *path)    zhu chong : shan chu de mu lu bu neng shi dang qian mu lu , bu shi gen mu lu , shi kong mu lu    fan hui zhi :0( cheng gong );-1( cao zuo chu cuo )    tou wen jian :dir.h   _rotl() jiang yi ge wu fu hao zheng xing shu zuo xun huan yi wei de han shu    yuan xing :unsigned _rotl(unsigned value,int count)    gong neng : jiang value xiang zuo xun huan yi dong count wei 。    fan hui zhi : jiang value xiang zuo xun huan yi dong count wei hou de zhi 。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   _rotr() jiang yi ge wu fu hao zheng xing shu you xun huan yi wei de han shu    yuan xing :unsigned _rotr(unsigned value,int count)    gong neng : jiang value xiang you xun huan yi dong count wei 。    fan hui zhi : jiang value xiang you xun huan yi dong count wei hou de zhi 。    tou wen jian :stdlib.h   scanf() ge shi hua shu ru han shu    shi yong ge shi :scanf(" shu ru ge shi ", shu ru xiang xi lie )   ① scanf("%f",& shi xing bian liang )   ② scanf("%c",& zi fu bian liang )   ③ scanf("%s", zi fu chuan bian liang )   ④ scanf("%d",& zheng xing bian liang )    zhu : xu xian ding yi yi shang ge zhong bian liang ru char * zi fu chuan bian liang ;   searchpath() an dos lu jing cha zhao yi ge wen jian de han shu    yuan xing :char *searchpath(const char *file)    yong fa :p=searchpath(" wen jian ming "); xian ding yi char *p;    gong neng : sou suo dos lu jing ( huan jing bian liang zhong de path=....) lai ding wei you file gei chu de wen jian 。    fan hui zhi : zhi xiang wan zheng lu jing ming zi fu chuan de zhi zhen 。 ding wei shi bai fan hui NULL。    tou wen jian :dir.h   segread() du duan ji cun qi han shu    yuan xing :void segread(struct SREGS *segp)    zuo yong : ba dang qian ji cun qi de zhi bao cun dao SREGS xing ji gou bian liang segp zhong 。   segs.cs= dai ma duan ji cun qi de zhi ;   segs.ds= shu ju duan ji cun qi de zhi ;   segs.es= fu jia duan ji cun qi de zhi ;   segs.ss= dui zhan duan ji cun qi de zhi ;   setactivepage() she zhi tu xing shu chu huo dong ye de han shu    yuan xing :void far setactivepage(int page)    gong neng : shi page cheng wei dang qian huo dong de tu xing ye , qi hou suo you de tu xing shu chu cao zuo dou zai page tu xing ye jin xing 。 huo dong tu xing ye ke yi bu shi zai ping mu shang kan dao de ye 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   setcolor() she zhi dang qian yao hua de xian yan se de han shu    yuan xing :void far setcolor(int color)    tou wen jian :graphics.h    zhu chong : yan se zhi (EGA/VGA)   0-BLACK;   1-BLUE;    2-GREEN;   3-CYAN;    4-RED;    5-MAGENTA;   6-BROWN;   7-LIGHTGRAY; 8-DARKGRAY;   9-LIGHTBLUE; 10-LIGHTGREEN;11-LIGHTCYAN;   12-LIGHTRED; 13-LIGHTMAGENTA;   14-YELLOW;  15-WHITE   setdisk() she zhi dang qian qu dong qi de han shu    yuan xing :int setdisk(int drive)    gong neng : ba you drive zhi ding de qu dong qi xiu gai cheng dang qian qu dong qi , fan hui ke shi yong de qu dong qi shu 。    tou wen jian :dir.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   setgraphmode() jiang xi tong she zhi cheng tu xing mo shi bing qing ping de han shu    yuan xing :void far setgraphmode(int mode)    gong neng : xuan ze yi ge bu tong yu tiao yong initgraph() han shu shi suo she zhi de que sheng de tu xing mo shi 。    fan hui zhi : jia ru gei le yi ge dui dang qian qu dong cheng xu lai shuo wu xiao de mo shi , ze fan hui -10。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   setlinestyle() she zhi dang qian hua xian kuan du he lei xing de han shu    yuan xing :   void far setlinestyle(int linestyle,unsigned upattern,int thickness)    qi zhong :linestyle=0 wei shi xian ;1 wei dian xian ;2 wei zhong xin xian ;3 wei po zhe xian ;4 wei yong hu ding yi 。   thickness=1 wei yi ge xiang su kuan ;3 wei san ge xiang su kuan 。    zhi you dang linestyle=4 shi ,upattern cai qi zuo yong 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   settextstyle() xian shi zi fu de dang qian she zhi han shu    gong neng : she zhi dang qian shu chu ying wen zi fu de zi ti 、 da xiao he fang xiang 。    tiao yong fang shi :   void far settextstyle(int font,int direction,int charsize)    qi zhong ① shen shu font que ding suo xuan ding de zi ti wai xing ,   DEFAULT_FONT huo 0 shi 8×8 wei tu zi ti   TRIPLEX_FONT huo 1 shi san chong shi liang zi ti   SMALL_FONT huo 2 shi xiao hao shi liang zi ti   SANS_SERIF_FONT huo 3 shi wu chen xian shi liang zi ti   GOTHIC_FONT huo 4 shi ge te shi liang zi ti   ② shen shu durection zi fu de xian shi fang xiang ,   HORIZ_DIR huo 0 shi shui ping fang xiang   VERT_DIR huo 1 shi chui zhi fang xiang   ③ shen shu charsize biao shi zi fu fang da de bei shu , qi zhi wei 0 dao 10。   setvect() she zhi zhong duan xiang liang han shu   setvect(int zhong duan hao ,void interrupt(* zhong duan han shu ming ))    gong neng : ba zhong duan fu wu cheng xu de di zhi zhuang ru zhong duan xiang liang biao zhong 。    tiao yong fang fa :setvect( zhong duan hao , zhong duan han shu ming ji di zhi );   (1) de yu xian ding yi yao dai ti yuan han shu de xin han shu   void interrupt zhong duan han shu ming (void)   {......}   (2) de xian bao liu yuan zhong duan han shu di zhi   void interrupt (* bao liu han shu ming )(void);    bao liu han shu ming =getvect( zhong duan hao );   (3) shi hou de jiang yuan zhong duan han shu di zhi zhuang hui xiang liang biao zhong   setvect( zhong duan hao , bao liu han shu ming );   setviewport() jian li shi kou de han shu    yuan xing : void far setviewport(int left,int top,int right,int bottom,int clip)    gong neng : yong zuo shang jiao zuo biao left,top he you xia jiao zuo biao right,bottom jian li yi ge shi kou , jia ru clip wei 1, ze chao chu shi kou de shu chu zi dong bei jian cai diao ; jia ru clip wei 0, ze bu bei jian cai 。    li :setviewport(0,0,100,100,1) jian li dui jiao xian wei 0,0 he 100,100 de shi kou , bing dai you jian cai gong neng 。    zhu : yao qing chu dang qian shi kou , yong han shu clearnviewport()。   setvisualpage() she zhi ke jian de tu xing ye hao de han shu    yuan xing :void far setvisualpage(int page)    gong neng : shi de page cheng wei ke jian de tu xing ye 。    tou wen jian :graphics.h   sin()    yuan xing ∶double sin(double arg)    gong neng ∶ ji suan arg( hu du ) de zheng xian zhi    tou wen jian ∶math.h   sprintf() ge shi hua shu chu dao shu zu de han shu    yuan xing ∶int sprintf(buf,format,arg_list)    qi zhong char *buf;    gong neng ∶ ba arg_list shen liang de zhi an format de ge shi shu chu dao buf zhong 。    li ∶sprintf(buffer," xiang dui shan qu hao ∶%s( qi zhong ∶ zhu mian hao wei %d/ ci tou hao wei %d/ shan qu hao wei %d)",string,cyls,head,sector);    qi zhong char buffer[100];   char *string="  ";   int cyls,head,sector;    fan hui zhi ∶ shi ji xie ru shu zu de zi fu ge shu 。    tou wen jian ∶stdio.h   strcat()    yuan xing ∶char *strcat(str1,str2)    gong neng ∶ ba str2 suo zhi de zi fu chuan lian jie dao str1 suo zhi de zi fu chuan hou 。    fan hui zhi ∶ zhi xiang str1 de zhi zhen 。   tan()    yuan xing ∶double tan(double arg)    gong neng ∶ ji suan arg( hu du ) de zheng qie zhi    tou wen jian ∶math.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo   _write() xie wen jian han shu    yuan xing :int _write(handle,buffer,count)   int handle;// wen jian de ju bing   void *buffer;// cun fang shu ju de huan chong qu   unsigned count;// xie ru de zi jie shu    gong neng : cong you buffer zhi ding de huan chong qu xie ru you count zhi ding zi jie shu de shu ju dao you handle zhi ding de wen jian 。 fan hui shi ji xie ru de zi jie shu 。    fan hui zhi :0-0xfffe( shi ji xie ru de zi jie shu );-1( cuo wu )    tou wen jian :io.h   write() xie wen jian han shu    yuan xing :int write(int handle,char *buf,unsigned len)    yong fa :write( wen jian ju bing , huan chong qu di zhi , huan chong qu zi jie chang du < zui da 65534>);    gong neng : jiang huan chong qu de shu ju xie ru yu handle xiang lian de wen jian huo she bei zhong ,handle shi cong creat、open、dup huo dup2 tiao yong zhong de dao de wen jian ju bing 。 dui yu ci pan huo ci pan wen jian , xie cao zuo cong dang qian wen jian zhi zhen chu kai shi , dui yu yong O_APPEND xuan xiang da kai de wen jian , xie shu ju zhi qian , wen jian zhi zhen zhi xiang EOF; dui yu she bei , zi jie bei zhi jie chuan song dao she bei zhong ;    fan hui zhi : shi ji xie ru de zi jie shu ( bu bao kuo hui che fu ), chu cuo shi fan hui -1。    tou wen jian :io.h geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
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