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C yu yan zhong ke bian shen shu de yong fa

2008-06-01 02:05:02 编辑來源:互联网 评论
 
本文为【C语言中可变参数的用法】的拼音翻译版
  wo men zai C yu yan bian cheng zhong hui peng dao yi xie shen shu ge shu ke bian de han shu , li ru PRintf() zhe ge han shu , ta de ding yi shi zhe yang de :
  int printf( const char* format, ...);
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  ta chu le you yi ge shen shu format gu ding yi wai , hou mian gen de shen shu de ge shu he lei xing shi ke bian de , li ru wo men ke yi you yi xia bu tong de tiao yong fang fa :
  printf("%d",i);
  printf("%s",s);
  printf("the number is %d ,string is:%s", i, s);
  jiu jing ru he xie ke bian shen shu de C han shu yi ji zhe xie ke bian shen shu de han shu bian yi qi shi ru he shi xian de ne ? ben wen jiu zhe ge wen ti jin xing yi xie tan tao , xi wang neng dui da jia you xie bang zhu . hui C++ de wang you zhi dao zhe xie wen ti zai C++ li bu cun zai , yin wei C++ ju you duo tai xing . dan C++ shi C de yi ge chao ji , yi xia de ji shu ye ke yi yong yu C++ de cheng xu zhong . xian yu ben ren de shui ping , wen zhong jia ru you bu dang zhi chu , qing da jia zhi zheng . ( yi ) xie yi ge jian dan de ke bian shen shu de C han shu
  xia mian wo men lai tan tao ru he xie yi ge jian dan de ke bian shen shu de C han shu . xie ke bian shen shu de C han shu yao zai cheng xu zhong yong dao yi xia zhe xie hong :
  void va_start( va_list arg_ptr, prev_param );
  type va_arg( va_list arg_ptr, type );
  void va_end( va_list arg_ptr );
  va zai zhe li shi variable-argument( ke bian shen shu ) de yi si . zhe xie hong ding yi zai stdarg.h zhong , suo yi yong dao ke bian shen shu de cheng xu ying gai bao han zhe ge tou wen jian . xia mian wo men xie yi ge jian dan de ke bian shen shu de han shu , gai han shu zhi shao you yi ge zheng shu shen shu , di er ge shen shu ye shi zheng shu , shi ke xuan de . han shu zhi shi da yin zhe liang ge shen shu de zhi .
  void simple_va_fun(int i, ...)
  {
  va_list arg_ptr;
  int j=0;
  va_start(arg_ptr, i);
  j=va_arg(arg_ptr, int);
  va_end(arg_ptr);
  printf("%d %d\n", i, j);
  return;
  }
  wo men ke yi zai wo men de tou wen jian zhong zhe yang sheng ming wo men de han shu :
  extern void simple_va_fun(int i, ...);
  wo men zai cheng xu zhong ke yi zhe yang tiao yong :
  simple_va_fun(100);
  simple_va_fun(100,200);
  cong zhe ge han shu de shi xian ke yi kan dao , wo men shi yong ke bian shen shu ying gai you yi xia bu zhou :
  1) shou xian zai han shu li ding yi yi ge va_list xing de bian liang , zhe li shi arg_ptr, zhe ge bian liang shi zhi xiang shen shu de zhi zhen .
  2) ran hou yong va_start hong chu shi hua bian liang arg_ptr, zhe ge hong de di er ge shen shu shi di yi ge ke bian shen shu de qian yi ge shen shu , shi yi ge gu ding de shen shu .
  3) ran hou yong va_arg fan hui ke bian de shen shu , bing fu zhi gei zheng shu j. va_arg de di er ge shen shu shi ni yao fan hui de shen shu de lei xing , zhe li shi int xing .
  4) zui hou yong va_end hong jie shu ke bian shen shu de huo qu . ran hou ni jiu ke yi zai han shu li shi yong di er ge shen shu le . jia ru han shu you duo ge ke bian shen shu de , yi ci tiao yong va_arg huo qu ge ge shen shu . jia ru wo men yong xia mian san zhong fang fa tiao yong de hua , dou shi he fa de , dan jie guo que bu yi yang :
  1)simple_va_fun(100);
  jie guo shi :100 -123456789( hui bian de zhi )
  2)simple_va_fun(100,200);
  jie guo shi :100 200
  3)simple_va_fun(100,200,300);
  jie guo shi :100 200
  wo men kan dao di yi zhong tiao yong you cuo wu , di er zhong tiao yong zheng que , di san zhong tiao yong jin guan jie guo zheng que , dan he wo men han shu zui chu de she ji you chong tu . xia mian yi jie wo men tan tao chu xian zhe xie jie guo de yuan yin he ke bian shen shu zai bian yi qi zhong shi ru he chu li de .
  
C语言中可变参数的用法
geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
  ( er ) ke bian shen shu zai bian yi qi zhong de chu li
  wo men zhi dao va_start,va_arg,va_end shi zai stdarg.h zhong bei ding yi cheng hong de , you yu 1) ying jian ping tai de bu tong 2) bian yi qi de bu tong , suo yi ding yi de hong ye you suo bu tong , xia mian yi VC++ zhong stdarg.h li x86 ping tai de hong ding yi zhai lu ru xia (’\’ hao biao shi zhe xing ):
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  typedef char * va_list;
  
  
  #define _INTSIZEOF(n) \
  ((sizeof(n)+sizeof(int)-1)&~(sizeof(int) - 1) )
  #define va_start(ap,v) ( ap = (va_list)&v + _INTSIZEOF(v) )
  #define va_arg(ap,t) \
  ( *(t *)((ap += _INTSIZEOF(t)) - _INTSIZEOF(t)) )
  #define va_end(ap) ( ap = (va_list)0 )
  ding yi _INTSIZEOF(n) zhu yao shi wei le mou xie xu yao nei cun de dui qi de xi tong .C yu yan de han shu shi cong you xiang zuo ya ru dui zhan de , tu (1) shi han shu de shen shu zai dui zhan zhong de fen bu wei zhi . wo men kan dao va_list bei ding yi cheng char*, you yi xie ping tai huo cao zuo xi tong ding yi wei void*. zai kan va_start de ding yi , ding yi wei &v+_INTSIZEOF(v), er &v shi gu ding shen shu zai dui zhan de di zhi , suo yi wo men yun xing va_start(ap, v) yi hou ,ap zhi xiang di yi ge ke bian shen shu zai dui zhan de di zhi , ru tu :
  gao di zhi -----------------------------
  han shu fan hui di zhi
  -----------------------------
  .......
  -----------------------------
  di n ge shen shu ( di yi ge ke bian shen shu )
  -----------------------------<--va_start hou ap zhi xiang
  di n-1 ge shen shu ( zui hou yi ge gu ding shen shu )
  di di zhi -----------------------------<-- &v
  tu (1)
  ran hou , wo men yong va_arg() qu de lei xing t de ke bian shen shu zhi , yi shang li wei int xing wei li , wo men kan yi xia va_arg qu int xing de fan hui zhi :
  j= ( *(int*)((ap += _INTSIZEOF(int))-_INTSIZEOF(int)) );
  shou xian ap+=sizeof(int), yi jing zhi xiang xia yi ge shen shu de di zhi le . ran hou fan hui ap-sizeof(int) de int* zhi zhen , zhe zheng shi di yi ge ke bian shen shu zai dui zhan li de di zhi ( tu 2). ran hou yong * qu de zhe ge di zhi de nei rong ( shen shu zhi ) fu gei j.
  gao di zhi -----------------------------
  han shu fan hui di zhi
  -----------------------------
  .......
  -----------------------------<--va_arg hou ap zhi xiang
  di n ge shen shu ( di yi ge ke bian shen shu )
  -----------------------------<--va_start hou ap zhi xiang
  di n-1 ge shen shu ( zui hou yi ge gu ding shen shu )
  di di zhi -----------------------------<-- &v
  tu (2)
  zui hou yao shuo de shi va_end hong de yi si ,x86 ping tai ding yi wei ap=(char*)0; shi ap bu zai zhi xiang dui zhan , er shi gen NULL yi yang . you xie zhi jie ding yi wei ((void*)0), zhe yang bian yi qi bu hui wei va_end chan sheng dai ma , li ru gcc zai linux de x86 ping tai jiu shi zhe yang ding yi de . zai zhe li da jia yao zhu chong yi ge wen ti : you yu shen shu de di zhi yong yu va_start hong , suo yi shen shu bu neng sheng ming wei ji cun qi bian liang huo zuo wei han shu huo shu zu lei xing . guan yu va_start, va_arg, va_end de miao shu jiu shi zhe xie le , wo men yao zhu chong de shi bu tong de cao zuo xi tong he ying jian ping tai de ding yi you xie bu tong , dan yuan li que shi xiang si de .
  ( san ) ke bian shen shu zai bian cheng zhong yao zhu chong de wen ti
  yin wei va_start, va_arg, va_end deng ding yi cheng hong , suo yi ta xian de hen yu chun , ke bian shen shu de lei xing he ge shu wan quan zai gai han shu zhong you cheng xu dai ma kong zhi , ta bing bu neng zhi neng di shi bie bu tong shen shu de ge shu he lei xing . you ren hui wen : na me printf zhong bu shi shi xian le zhi neng shi bie shen shu ma ? na shi yin wei han shu printf shi cong gu ding shen shu format zi fu chuan lai fen xi chu shen shu de lei xing , zai tiao yong va_arg de lai huo qu ke bian shen shu de . ye jiu shi shuo , ni xiang shi xian zhi neng shi bie ke bian shen shu de hua shi yao tong guo zai zi ji de cheng xu li zuo pan ding lai shi xian de . ling wai you yi ge wen ti , yin wei bian yi qi dui ke bian shen shu de han shu de yuan xing jian cha bu gou yan ge , dui bian cheng cha cuo bu li . jia ru simple_va_fun() gai wei :
  void simple_va_fun(int i, ...)
  {
  va_list arg_ptr;
  char *s=NULL;
  va_start(arg_ptr, i);
  s=va_arg(arg_ptr, char*);
  va_end(arg_ptr);
  printf("%d %s\n", i, s);
  return;
  }
  ke bian shen shu wei char* xing , dang wo men wang ji yong liang ge shen shu lai tiao yong gai han shu shi , jiu hui chu xian core dump(Unix) huo zhe ye mian fei fa de cuo wu (window ping tai ). dan ye you ke neng bu chu cuo , dan cuo wu que shi nan yi fa xian , bu li yu wo men xie chu gao zhi liang de cheng xu .
  yi xia ti yi xia va xi lie hong de jian rong xing .System V Unix ba va_start ding yi wei zhi you yi ge shen shu de hong :
  va_start(va_list arg_ptr);
  er ANSI C ze ding yi wei :
  va_start(va_list arg_ptr, prev_param);
  jia ru wo men yao yong system V de ding yi , ying gai yong vararg.h tou wen jian zhong suo ding yi de hong ,ANSI C de hong gen system V de hong shi bu jian rong de , wo men yi ban dou yong ANSI C, suo yi yong ANSI C de ding yi jiu gou le , ye bian yu cheng xu de yi zhi .
  xiao jie :
  ke bian shen shu de han shu yuan li qi shi hen jian dan , er va xi lie shi yi hong ding yi lai ding yi de , shi xian gen dui zhan xiang guan . wo men xie yi ge ke bian han shu de C han shu shi , you li ye you bi , suo yi zai bu bi yao de chang he , wo men wu xu yong dao ke bian shen shu . jia ru zai C++ li , wo men ying gai li yong C++ de duo tai xing lai shi xian ke bian shen shu de gong neng , jin liang bi mian yong C yu yan de fang shi lai shi xian .
  xie zhe pian wen zhang shi , shi feng gan mao , duo de you ta de guan fu ,
  
   jin ba zhe pian wen zhang xian gei ta ...
C语言中可变参数的用法
geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo【原文】【汉音对照
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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   wo men zai C yu yan bian cheng zhong hui peng dao yi xie shen shu ge shu ke bian de han shu , li ru PRintf() zhe ge han shu , ta de ding yi shi zhe yang de :   int printf( const char* format, ...);    ta chu le you yi ge shen shu format gu ding yi wai , hou mian gen de shen shu de ge shu he lei xing shi ke bian de , li ru wo men ke yi you yi xia bu tong de tiao yong fang fa :   printf("%d",i);   printf("%s",s);   printf("the number is %d ,string is:%s", i, s);    jiu jing ru he xie ke bian shen shu de C han shu yi ji zhe xie ke bian shen shu de han shu bian yi qi shi ru he shi xian de ne ? ben wen jiu zhe ge wen ti jin xing yi xie tan tao , xi wang neng dui da jia you xie bang zhu . hui C++ de wang you zhi dao zhe xie wen ti zai C++ li bu cun zai , yin wei C++ ju you duo tai xing . dan C++ shi C de yi ge chao ji , yi xia de ji shu ye ke yi yong yu C++ de cheng xu zhong . xian yu ben ren de shui ping , wen zhong jia ru you bu dang zhi chu , qing da jia zhi zheng . ( yi ) xie yi ge jian dan de ke bian shen shu de C han shu    xia mian wo men lai tan tao ru he xie yi ge jian dan de ke bian shen shu de C han shu . xie ke bian shen shu de C han shu yao zai cheng xu zhong yong dao yi xia zhe xie hong :   void va_start( va_list arg_ptr, prev_param );   type va_arg( va_list arg_ptr, type );   void va_end( va_list arg_ptr );   va zai zhe li shi variable-argument( ke bian shen shu ) de yi si . zhe xie hong ding yi zai stdarg.h zhong , suo yi yong dao ke bian shen shu de cheng xu ying gai bao han zhe ge tou wen jian . xia mian wo men xie yi ge jian dan de ke bian shen shu de han shu , gai han shu zhi shao you yi ge zheng shu shen shu , di er ge shen shu ye shi zheng shu , shi ke xuan de . han shu zhi shi da yin zhe liang ge shen shu de zhi .   void simple_va_fun(int i, ...)   {   va_list arg_ptr;   int j=0;   va_start(arg_ptr, i);   j=va_arg(arg_ptr, int);   va_end(arg_ptr);   printf("%d %d\n", i, j);   return;   }    wo men ke yi zai wo men de tou wen jian zhong zhe yang sheng ming wo men de han shu :   extern void simple_va_fun(int i, ...);    wo men zai cheng xu zhong ke yi zhe yang tiao yong :   simple_va_fun(100);   simple_va_fun(100,200);    cong zhe ge han shu de shi xian ke yi kan dao , wo men shi yong ke bian shen shu ying gai you yi xia bu zhou :   1) shou xian zai han shu li ding yi yi ge va_list xing de bian liang , zhe li shi arg_ptr, zhe ge bian liang shi zhi xiang shen shu de zhi zhen .   2) ran hou yong va_start hong chu shi hua bian liang arg_ptr, zhe ge hong de di er ge shen shu shi di yi ge ke bian shen shu de qian yi ge shen shu , shi yi ge gu ding de shen shu .   3) ran hou yong va_arg fan hui ke bian de shen shu , bing fu zhi gei zheng shu j. va_arg de di er ge shen shu shi ni yao fan hui de shen shu de lei xing , zhe li shi int xing .   4) zui hou yong va_end hong jie shu ke bian shen shu de huo qu . ran hou ni jiu ke yi zai han shu li shi yong di er ge shen shu le . jia ru han shu you duo ge ke bian shen shu de , yi ci tiao yong va_arg huo qu ge ge shen shu .    jia ru wo men yong xia mian san zhong fang fa tiao yong de hua , dou shi he fa de , dan jie guo que bu yi yang :   1)  simple_va_fun(100);    jie guo shi :100 -123456789( hui bian de zhi )   2)  simple_va_fun(100,200);    jie guo shi :100 200   3)  simple_va_fun(100,200,300);    jie guo shi :100 200    wo men kan dao di yi zhong tiao yong you cuo wu , di er zhong tiao yong zheng que , di san zhong tiao yong jin guan jie guo zheng que , dan he wo men han shu zui chu de she ji you chong tu . xia mian yi jie wo men tan tao chu xian zhe xie jie guo de yuan yin he ke bian shen shu zai bian yi qi zhong shi ru he chu li de . [url=http://www.wangchao.net.cn/bbs/pydetail_1785333.html][img]http://image.wangchao.net.cn/it/1323423851227.gif[/img][/url] geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo ( er ) ke bian shen shu zai bian yi qi zhong de chu li    wo men zhi dao va_start,va_arg,va_end shi zai stdarg.h zhong bei ding yi cheng hong de , you yu 1) ying jian ping tai de bu tong 2) bian yi qi de bu tong , suo yi ding yi de hong ye you suo bu tong , xia mian yi VC++ zhong stdarg.h li x86 ping tai de hong ding yi zhai lu ru xia (’\’ hao biao shi zhe xing ):   typedef char * va_list;   #define _INTSIZEOF(n) \   ((sizeof(n)+sizeof(int)-1)&~(sizeof(int) - 1) )   #define va_start(ap,v) ( ap = (va_list)&v + _INTSIZEOF(v) )   #define va_arg(ap,t) \   ( *(t *)((ap += _INTSIZEOF(t)) - _INTSIZEOF(t)) )   #define va_end(ap) ( ap = (va_list)0 )    ding yi _INTSIZEOF(n) zhu yao shi wei le mou xie xu yao nei cun de dui qi de xi tong .C yu yan de han shu shi cong you xiang zuo ya ru dui zhan de , tu (1) shi han shu de shen shu zai dui zhan zhong de fen bu wei zhi . wo men kan dao va_list bei ding yi cheng char*, you yi xie ping tai huo cao zuo xi tong ding yi wei void*. zai kan va_start de ding yi , ding yi wei &v+_INTSIZEOF(v), er &v shi gu ding shen shu zai dui zhan de di zhi , suo yi wo men yun xing va_start(ap, v) yi hou ,ap zhi xiang di yi ge ke bian shen shu zai dui zhan de di zhi , ru tu : gao di zhi ----------------------------- han shu fan hui di zhi ----------------------------- ....... ----------------------------- di n ge shen shu ( di yi ge ke bian shen shu ) -----------------------------<--va_start hou ap zhi xiang di n-1 ge shen shu ( zui hou yi ge gu ding shen shu ) di di zhi -----------------------------<-- &v tu (1)    ran hou , wo men yong va_arg() qu de lei xing t de ke bian shen shu zhi , yi shang li wei int xing wei li , wo men kan yi xia va_arg qu int xing de fan hui zhi :   j= ( *(int*)((ap += _INTSIZEOF(int))-_INTSIZEOF(int)) );    shou xian ap+=sizeof(int), yi jing zhi xiang xia yi ge shen shu de di zhi le . ran hou fan hui ap-sizeof(int) de int* zhi zhen , zhe zheng shi di yi ge ke bian shen shu zai dui zhan li de di zhi ( tu 2). ran hou yong * qu de zhe ge di zhi de nei rong ( shen shu zhi ) fu gei j. gao di zhi ----------------------------- han shu fan hui di zhi ----------------------------- ....... -----------------------------<--va_arg hou ap zhi xiang di n ge shen shu ( di yi ge ke bian shen shu ) -----------------------------<--va_start hou ap zhi xiang di n-1 ge shen shu ( zui hou yi ge gu ding shen shu ) di di zhi -----------------------------<-- &v tu (2)    zui hou yao shuo de shi va_end hong de yi si ,x86 ping tai ding yi wei ap=(char*)0; shi ap bu zai zhi xiang dui zhan , er shi gen NULL yi yang . you xie zhi jie ding yi wei ((void*)0), zhe yang bian yi qi bu hui wei va_end chan sheng dai ma , li ru gcc zai linux de x86 ping tai jiu shi zhe yang ding yi de . zai zhe li da jia yao zhu chong yi ge wen ti : you yu shen shu de di zhi yong yu va_start hong , suo yi shen shu bu neng sheng ming wei ji cun qi bian liang huo zuo wei han shu huo shu zu lei xing . guan yu va_start, va_arg, va_end de miao shu jiu shi zhe xie le , wo men yao zhu chong de shi bu tong de cao zuo xi tong he ying jian ping tai de ding yi you xie bu tong , dan yuan li que shi xiang si de . ( san ) ke bian shen shu zai bian cheng zhong yao zhu chong de wen ti    yin wei va_start, va_arg, va_end deng ding yi cheng hong , suo yi ta xian de hen yu chun , ke bian shen shu de lei xing he ge shu wan quan zai gai han shu zhong you cheng xu dai ma kong zhi , ta bing bu neng zhi neng di shi bie bu tong shen shu de ge shu he lei xing . you ren hui wen : na me printf zhong bu shi shi xian le zhi neng shi bie shen shu ma ? na shi yin wei han shu printf shi cong gu ding shen shu format zi fu chuan lai fen xi chu shen shu de lei xing , zai tiao yong va_arg de lai huo qu ke bian shen shu de . ye jiu shi shuo , ni xiang shi xian zhi neng shi bie ke bian shen shu de hua shi yao tong guo zai zi ji de cheng xu li zuo pan ding lai shi xian de . ling wai you yi ge wen ti , yin wei bian yi qi dui ke bian shen shu de han shu de yuan xing jian cha bu gou yan ge , dui bian cheng cha cuo bu li . jia ru simple_va_fun() gai wei :   void simple_va_fun(int i, ...)   {   va_list arg_ptr;   char *s=NULL;   va_start(arg_ptr, i);   s=va_arg(arg_ptr, char*);   va_end(arg_ptr);   printf("%d %s\n", i, s);   return;   }    ke bian shen shu wei char* xing , dang wo men wang ji yong liang ge shen shu lai tiao yong gai han shu shi , jiu hui chu xian core dump(Unix) huo zhe ye mian fei fa de cuo wu (window ping tai ). dan ye you ke neng bu chu cuo , dan cuo wu que shi nan yi fa xian , bu li yu wo men xie chu gao zhi liang de cheng xu . yi xia ti yi xia va xi lie hong de jian rong xing .System V Unix ba va_start ding yi wei zhi you yi ge shen shu de hong :   va_start(va_list arg_ptr);    er ANSI C ze ding yi wei :   va_start(va_list arg_ptr, prev_param);    jia ru wo men yao yong system V de ding yi , ying gai yong vararg.h tou wen jian zhong suo ding yi de hong ,ANSI C de hong gen system V de hong shi bu jian rong de , wo men yi ban dou yong ANSI C, suo yi yong ANSI C de ding yi jiu gou le , ye bian yu cheng xu de yi zhi . xiao jie :    ke bian shen shu de han shu yuan li qi shi hen jian dan , er va xi lie shi yi hong ding yi lai ding yi de , shi xian gen dui zhan xiang guan . wo men xie yi ge ke bian han shu de C han shu shi , you li ye you bi , suo yi zai bu bi yao de chang he , wo men wu xu yong dao ke bian shen shu . jia ru zai C++ li , wo men ying gai li yong C++ de duo tai xing lai shi xian ke bian shen shu de gong neng , jin liang bi mian yong C yu yan de fang shi lai shi xian . xie zhe pian wen zhang shi , shi feng gan mao , duo de you ta de guan fu , jin ba zhe pian wen zhang xian gei ta ... [url=http://www.wangchao.net.cn/bbs/pydetail_1785333.html][img]http://image.wangchao.net.cn/it/1323423851263.gif[/img][/url] geng duo nei rong qing kan C/C++ jin jie ji shu wen dang zhuan ti , huo
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