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gai liang de Perl: cheng xu yuan mian xiang Linux de she zhi

2008-05-19 06:26:00 编辑來源:互联网 评论
 
 
 
本文为【改良的Perl:程序员面向Linux的设置】的拼音翻译版
  zuo zhe :Teodor Zlatanov
  you hua ji qi lai man zu xu yao
  wei mian xiang Java he Perl de bian cheng huan jing ding zhi le tcsh、Enlightenment、Eterm he Emacs hou ,Teodor wei wo men zhan shi le ta zhuo mian de Linux pei zhi 。 zhe shi wei Java he Perl bian cheng she zhi you hua de , dan hao wu yi wen , qi ta cheng xu yuan ye hui zai qi zhong fa xian xu duo you yong de qiao men 。
  ji nian qian , wo jiu kai shi le zai Unix zhong gou jian wo de bian cheng huan jing 。 zhe xiang gong zuo zhi jin reng wei wan cheng ! wo zai zhe li suo jie shao de shi wo suo shi yong de huan jing de yi ge suo ying , dan qing nin li jie , ta bing bu wan zheng , ye bu gou wan mei 。 nin ying gai bu duan di gai jin ji suan huan jing 。 zuo xie xiu xiu bu bu de shi hen you qu , yin wei ke neng hui zai guo cheng zhong xue dao xu duo xin zhi shi 。
  suo you de guo cuo dou shi wo fan de , dan wo reng yao gan ji ji nian lai zeng bang zhu guo wo de na xie ren 。( ren shu zhong duo , yi zhi wo wu fa yi yi lie chu ta men de ming zi 。) ru guo mei you ta men de bang zhu , wu lun shi ge ren huan shi xin wen zu , wo dou wu fa xie chu xia mian de wen zhang 。
  ru men
  ben wen zhi zai mian xiang zhong gao ji Linux yong hu 。 ying gai an zhuang Perl 5.6.0, huo zhi shao 5.005 cai neng wan cheng mou xie shi li 。 zhe li jiang hui ti dao Emacs bian ji qi , ru guo xi wang chang shi Emacs shi li , xu yao an zhuang ta 。 huan hui ti dao Enlightenment chuang kou guan li qi , ta xu yao he Eterm zhong duan fang zhen qi yi qi an zhuang , dan da duo shu zui jin de chuang kou guan li qi he zhong duan fang zhen qi dou ju you yu Enlightenment he Eterm zai ben wen huan jing zhong ti gong de lei si de na xie te xing 。
  nin ying gai xi guan yu bian ji wen jian , jin xing xi tong xiu gai 、 cong yuan ma an zhuang Linux ruan jian bao , bing yuan yi shi yong Linux。 ru guo nin bu shu xi zhe xie ren wu de hua , zai chang shi zhe li miao shu de ren he cao zuo de shi hou yao ge wai xiao xin , bing qie zhu yi jiang mei yang shi wu jin xing bei fen 。( zai ren he qing kuang xia zhe dou bu shi wei yi ge hao de zuo fa 。)
  tcsh ding zhi
  wo shi yong tcsh zuo wei zhu yao deng lu shell。 hen rong yi jiang shi li zhuan huan cheng you bash、zsh huo qi ta shell shi yong 。 wo shi yong tcsh shell hao ji nian le , dan zhe bing bu yi wei zhe shuo dui mei ge ren dou shi he 。
  tcsh shell shi yong yi xie chu shi hua (rc) wen jian 。 zai UNIX zhong ,rc( fa yin wei :"ar cee") wen jian shi you cheng xu zai chu shi hua shi du qu de wen jian 。rc ming zi lai zi wen jian ming de gong gong "rc" hou zhui ( li ru ,"tcshrc" yong yu tcsh shell,"exrc" yong yu biao zhun vi bian ji qi )。rc wen jian you shi huan cheng zuo "dot" wen jian , yin wei ta men yi yi ge dian (dot) kai tou , zhe yang ke yi zai zheng chang de mu lu lie biao zhong yin cang qi lai 。
  wo suo jin xing de tcsh shell ding zhi wei yu .cshrc、.login he .logout wen jian zhong 。 qi ta ren shi yong .tcshrc er bu shi .cshrc, dan chu fei nin ye shi yong C (csh) shell( qi shi bu ying gai shi yong ta ;tcsh geng hao ), fou ze mei shen me cha yi 。
  .login wen jian shi wei deng lu shell zhi xing de di yi ge wen jian :
  qing dan 1: wo de .login wen jian
  stty erase \^?
  echo TERM = $TERM
  switch ($HOST)
  case "workmachine":
  fetchmail
  breaksw
  case "homemachine":
  fortune
  echo "---"
  from | tail
  mesg y
  echo "---"
  breaksw
  default:
  breaksw
  endsw
  "stty erase" na yi xing jiang ca chu zi fu she zhi cheng shan chu jian 。 wo bi jiao xi huan zhe ge she zhi , yin wei wo xi guan yu shi yong shan chu jian lai xiang hou ca chu , dan ru guo nin jiao de que sheng zhi hen shi he nin , jiu bu bi geng gai ta 。
  ran hou ,echo yu ju da yin chu dang qian de zhong duan 。 wo zhi suo yi zhe yang zuo shi yin wei ke yi zhi dao shi fou zhi chi xterm neng li , dan zhe bu na me chong yao 。
  hou mian gen zhe switch yu ju 。 ta zai xing shi shang yu C switch() yu ju lei si ( bi jing C [csh] shell yi ji shao hou de tcsh shell dou yan xi le ta )。 gen ju bu tong de zhu ji ming , ke yi yun xing fetchmail( wo zai wo de gong zuo ji qi shang mei ge deng lu shell zhong yun xing ta , yin wei duo ge fetchmail de fu ben xiang hu zhi jian bu ying xiang ), huo zhe zai ben di yun xing qi ta yi xie ming ling 。
  ben di ji qi de ming ling ru xia :print a fortune( shi yi xia ; fei chang you qu !); ran hou shi chu shu ("---"); ran hou shi you xiang zhong zui hou ji tiao xiao xi ; ran hou da kai fen ye mian xu ke quan ; ran hou da yin ling yi ge chu shu 。
  ming ling huan you yi zhong que sheng qing kuang , ying gai ke yi sui chu yun xing 。 dan wei zai wo de huan jing zhong shi yong 。
  zai .login wen jian zhi hou ,tcsh shell jing guo .cshrc wen jian ( ta geng xi huan shi yong tcshrc wen jian , dan ru guo zhi neng shi yong .cshrc de hua ye zhi neng jiang jiu le )。
  qing dan 2: wo de .cshrc wen jian , di 1 bu fen : te ding yu shell de she zhi
  qing dan 2 zhong de dai ma shi te ding yu shell de , yi wei zhe ta bu zhi jie yu ren he qi ta shell xiang jie 。 yi ban lai shuo , te ding yu shell de she zhi shi shi yong "set" ming ling she zhi de , er huan jing she zhi shi shi yong "setenv" she zhi de 。 lu jing shi ge li wai , yin wei tcsh shell wei hu zhe $PATH he $path de tong bu , suo yi ke yi shi yong set huo setenv lai she zhi lu jing 。 zhe shi ge ren xi hao de wen ti 。
  set he setenv de fan cao zuo shi unset he unsetenv。 zhi you set huo setenv cai da yin chu shell he huan jing she zhi de lie biao 。
  jiu wo ge ren lai kan , wo ren wei huan jing he shell she zhi zhi jian de cha yi shi tcsh zui zao gao de yi ge fang mian 。 wo hui shi yong qi zhong yi ge , dan bu hui tong shi shi yong ta men 。 dang qian de she ji qiang po wo tong shi shi yong ta men 。
  qing dan 3: wo de .cshrc wen jian , di 2 bu fen : huan jing
  # another switch statement
  switch ($HOST)
  case "homemachine":
  # from home, I use my work machine's external network interface
  setenv CVSROOT tzz@workmachine-external:/cvsroot
  # of course, ssh is the only protocol allowed. rsh is insecure.
  setenv CVS_RSH ssh
  # my NNTP server at home
  setenv NNTPSERVER nntp
  # give Emacs a name, for Enlightenment positioning
  alias emacs emacs -name workmachine-emacs
  breaksw
  case "homemachine-2":
  # same as homemachine
  setenv CVSROOT tzz@workmachine-external:/cvsroot
  setenv CVS_RSH ssh
  # but this is a Solaris machine, so use mailx (I could have used
  # OSTYPE instead of $HOST for generality)
  alias mail mailx
  breaksw
  default:
  # default CVS root for all machine at work. Leave rsh as the
  # default transport.
  setenv CVSROOT tzz@workmachine:/cvsroot
  breaksw
  endsw
  qing dan 3 zhong de huan jing she zhi zhu yao kao lv shi fou zheng que she zhi le CVS zi yuan ku gen 。 ru guo shi yong CVS, zhe shi zi dong she zhi shi wu yi shi suo you CVS ming ling ke yi cong ren he ji qi shang shi yong de yi zhong jian bian fang fa 。 ling wai , wo gei zhu yao Emacs chuang kou ti gong le yi ge ming cheng , zhe yang Enlightenment ke yi zhun que di zhao dao ta 。
  wo ying gai shi yong $OSTYPE er bu shi $HOST, bing she zhi dan du de switch() yu ju lai chu li Solaris; dan suo you wei jiang mail qu bie ming wei mailx de yu ju dui wo lai shuo dou si hu you xie duo yu 。
  qing dan 4: wo de .cshrc wen jian , di 3 bu fen : bie ming
  yao chang shi xia mian ding yi de bie ming , zhi xu yao zai ti shi shang shu ru ta men 。"abc" bie ming jiang zi ji zai yi xing shang da yin "foreach?" bing deng dai nin de shu ru 。 li ru , ru guo shu ru "echo $a", ran hou zai xia yi ge ti shi shang shu ru "end", "echo" ming ling jiang zai $a zhong yun xing 1 dao 9, ran hou cong A dao Z, ran hou cong a dao z。
  zui hou , wo de .logout fei chang jian dan 。 ta shi zai deng lu shell tui chu shi zhi xing de yi xi lie ming ling , dan zhi zai wo de ben di ji qi shang 。 zai suo you qi ta ji qi shang , ta shen me dou bu zuo 。
  qing dan 5: wo de .logout wen jian
  switch ($HOST)
  case "homemachine":
  # save the list of subscribed newsgroups, just in case:
  # save only the first 2000 characters of each lines (the
  # .newsrc file can have very long lines), then filter out the
  # unsubscribed newsgroups, and save the output in ~/.subbed
  cut -c 1-2000 ~/.newsrc | egrep -v "!" ~/.subbed
  # remove any dead letter files (/bin/mail generates them)
  rm ~/dead.letter
  breaksw
  default:
  breaksw
  endsw
  Enlightenment he Eterm ding zhi
  wo zui chang yong de chuang kou guan li qi shi Enlightenment。 wo xi huan ta suo yi shi yong ta 。 nin ke neng bu xi huan Enlightenment( yi xia cheng wei "E"), dan bu guan zen yang , nin de chuang kou guan li qi ye ke neng zhi chi E zhong wo suo xi huan de da duo shu te xing 。 yao fu zhi Eterm de gong neng bi jiao kun nan , jin guan aterm cheng xu zai mu de he xiao guo shang yu zhi lei si 。
  E he Eterm dou shi yong zhu ti 。 zhu ti shi gei ren kan de , zai shi ji dang zhong bu pai shen me yong chang 。 wo fa xian ta men dui yu Eterm hen you yong , dan dui yu E, wo bu hui jiang zhu ti yong yu bian cheng zhi chi 。
  wo dui E jin xing de zui chong yao de yi xiang xiu gai jiu shi geng gai le yu e16keyedit cheng xu de que sheng jian bang ding 。 wo jiang Alt-F1 dao Alt-F12 yang she cheng zhuo mian 1 dao 12, zhe yang ke yi kuai su di zai bu tong ren wu zhi jian qie huan 。 wo gei mou xie zhuo mian qu le bie ming , tian jia le an jian -- li ru ,Alt-Shift-M ke yi dai wo dao you jian zhuo mian 。
  ling wai , wo huan rang Ctrl-Alt-M qi dong yi ge you jian chuang kou ( shi ji shang shi "emacs -name gnus -f gnus", yin wei wo shi yong Gnus lai yue du you jian )。 yi lei si de fang shi , wo rang Alt-Shift-Letter zhuan dao te ding zhuo mian , er Ctrl-Alt-Letter qi dong gai zhuo mian shang de yi ge cheng xu 。
  E ke yi ji zhu cheng xu de wei zhi he ming ling xing tiao yong 。 zhe yi wei zhe ru guo cheng xu ju you du te de ming cheng ,E ke yi zai xia ci nin deng lu de shi hou chong xin qi dong ta , huo zhe zai xia ci nin qi dong ta de shi hou ji zhu ta de wei zhi 。 ming cheng shi chuang kou de X ming , tong chang yong -name shen shu zhi ding gei cheng xu 。
  Eterm shi yong zhu ti lai zhi ding ding zhi xing wei 。 ke yi chang shi Eterm suo dai de suo you que sheng zhu ti ( li ru ,"Eterm -t mutt" yong yu mian xiang mutt de zhong duan , huo
  【原文】【汉音对照
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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   zuo zhe :Teodor Zlatanov    you hua ji qi lai man zu xu yao    wei mian xiang Java he Perl de bian cheng huan jing ding zhi le tcsh、Enlightenment、Eterm he Emacs hou ,Teodor wei wo men zhan shi le ta zhuo mian de Linux pei zhi 。 zhe shi wei Java he Perl bian cheng she zhi you hua de , dan hao wu yi wen , qi ta cheng xu yuan ye hui zai qi zhong fa xian xu duo you yong de qiao men 。    ji nian qian , wo jiu kai shi le zai Unix zhong gou jian wo de bian cheng huan jing 。 zhe xiang gong zuo zhi jin reng wei wan cheng ! wo zai zhe li suo jie shao de shi wo suo shi yong de huan jing de yi ge suo ying , dan qing nin li jie , ta bing bu wan zheng , ye bu gou wan mei 。 nin ying gai bu duan di gai jin ji suan huan jing 。 zuo xie xiu xiu bu bu de shi hen you qu , yin wei ke neng hui zai guo cheng zhong xue dao xu duo xin zhi shi 。    suo you de guo cuo dou shi wo fan de , dan wo reng yao gan ji ji nian lai zeng bang zhu guo wo de na xie ren 。( ren shu zhong duo , yi zhi wo wu fa yi yi lie chu ta men de ming zi 。) ru guo mei you ta men de bang zhu , wu lun shi ge ren huan shi xin wen zu , wo dou wu fa xie chu xia mian de wen zhang 。    ru men    ben wen zhi zai mian xiang zhong gao ji Linux yong hu 。 ying gai an zhuang Perl 5.6.0, huo zhi shao 5.005 cai neng wan cheng mou xie shi li 。 zhe li jiang hui ti dao Emacs bian ji qi , ru guo xi wang chang shi Emacs shi li , xu yao an zhuang ta 。 huan hui ti dao Enlightenment chuang kou guan li qi , ta xu yao he Eterm zhong duan fang zhen qi yi qi an zhuang , dan da duo shu zui jin de chuang kou guan li qi he zhong duan fang zhen qi dou ju you yu Enlightenment he Eterm zai ben wen huan jing zhong ti gong de lei si de na xie te xing 。    nin ying gai xi guan yu bian ji wen jian , jin xing xi tong xiu gai 、 cong yuan ma an zhuang Linux ruan jian bao , bing yuan yi shi yong Linux。 ru guo nin bu shu xi zhe xie ren wu de hua , zai chang shi zhe li miao shu de ren he cao zuo de shi hou yao ge wai xiao xin , bing qie zhu yi jiang mei yang shi wu jin xing bei fen 。( zai ren he qing kuang xia zhe dou bu shi wei yi ge hao de zuo fa 。)   tcsh ding zhi    wo shi yong tcsh zuo wei zhu yao deng lu shell。 hen rong yi jiang shi li zhuan huan cheng you bash、zsh huo qi ta shell shi yong 。 wo shi yong tcsh shell hao ji nian le , dan zhe bing bu yi wei zhe shuo dui mei ge ren dou shi he 。   tcsh shell shi yong yi xie chu shi hua (rc) wen jian 。 zai UNIX zhong ,rc( fa yin wei :"ar cee") wen jian shi you cheng xu zai chu shi hua shi du qu de wen jian 。rc ming zi lai zi wen jian ming de gong gong "rc" hou zhui ( li ru ,"tcshrc" yong yu tcsh shell,"exrc" yong yu biao zhun vi bian ji qi )。rc wen jian you shi huan cheng zuo "dot" wen jian , yin wei ta men yi yi ge dian (dot) kai tou , zhe yang ke yi zai zheng chang de mu lu lie biao zhong yin cang qi lai 。    wo suo jin xing de tcsh shell ding zhi wei yu .cshrc、.login he .logout wen jian zhong 。 qi ta ren shi yong .tcshrc er bu shi .cshrc, dan chu fei nin ye shi yong C (csh) shell( qi shi bu ying gai shi yong ta ;tcsh geng hao ), fou ze mei shen me cha yi 。   .login wen jian shi wei deng lu shell zhi xing de di yi ge wen jian :    qing dan 1: wo de .login wen jian   stty erase \^?   echo TERM = $TERM   switch ($HOST)   case "workmachine":   fetchmail   breaksw   case "homemachine":   fortune   echo "---"   from | tail   mesg y   echo "---"   breaksw   default:   breaksw   endsw   "stty erase" na yi xing jiang ca chu zi fu she zhi cheng shan chu jian 。 wo bi jiao xi huan zhe ge she zhi , yin wei wo xi guan yu shi yong shan chu jian lai xiang hou ca chu , dan ru guo nin jiao de que sheng zhi hen shi he nin , jiu bu bi geng gai ta 。    ran hou ,echo yu ju da yin chu dang qian de zhong duan 。 wo zhi suo yi zhe yang zuo shi yin wei ke yi zhi dao shi fou zhi chi xterm neng li , dan zhe bu na me chong yao 。    hou mian gen zhe switch yu ju 。 ta zai xing shi shang yu C switch() yu ju lei si ( bi jing C [csh] shell yi ji shao hou de tcsh shell dou yan xi le ta )。 gen ju bu tong de zhu ji ming , ke yi yun xing fetchmail( wo zai wo de gong zuo ji qi shang mei ge deng lu shell zhong yun xing ta , yin wei duo ge fetchmail de fu ben xiang hu zhi jian bu ying xiang ), huo zhe zai ben di yun xing qi ta yi xie ming ling 。    ben di ji qi de ming ling ru xia :print a fortune( shi yi xia ; fei chang you qu !); ran hou shi chu shu ("---"); ran hou shi you xiang zhong zui hou ji tiao xiao xi ; ran hou da kai fen ye mian xu ke quan ; ran hou da yin ling yi ge chu shu 。    ming ling huan you yi zhong que sheng qing kuang , ying gai ke yi sui chu yun xing 。 dan wei zai wo de huan jing zhong shi yong 。    zai .login wen jian zhi hou ,tcsh shell jing guo .cshrc wen jian ( ta geng xi huan shi yong tcshrc wen jian , dan ru guo zhi neng shi yong .cshrc de hua ye zhi neng jiang jiu le )。    qing dan 2: wo de .cshrc wen jian , di 1 bu fen : te ding yu shell de she zhi    qing dan 2 zhong de dai ma shi te ding yu shell de , yi wei zhe ta bu zhi jie yu ren he qi ta shell xiang jie 。 yi ban lai shuo , te ding yu shell de she zhi shi shi yong "set" ming ling she zhi de , er huan jing she zhi shi shi yong "setenv" she zhi de 。 lu jing shi ge li wai , yin wei tcsh shell wei hu zhe $PATH he $path de tong bu , suo yi ke yi shi yong set huo setenv lai she zhi lu jing 。 zhe shi ge ren xi hao de wen ti 。   set he setenv de fan cao zuo shi unset he unsetenv。 zhi you set huo setenv cai da yin chu shell he huan jing she zhi de lie biao 。    jiu wo ge ren lai kan , wo ren wei huan jing he shell she zhi zhi jian de cha yi shi tcsh zui zao gao de yi ge fang mian 。 wo hui shi yong qi zhong yi ge , dan bu hui tong shi shi yong ta men 。 dang qian de she ji qiang po wo tong shi shi yong ta men 。    qing dan 3: wo de .cshrc wen jian , di 2 bu fen : huan jing   # another switch statement   switch ($HOST)   case "homemachine":   # from home, I use my work machine's external network interface   setenv CVSROOT tzz@workmachine-external:/cvsroot   # of course, ssh is the only protocol allowed. rsh is insecure.   setenv CVS_RSH ssh   # my NNTP server at home   setenv NNTPSERVER nntp   # give Emacs a name, for Enlightenment positioning   alias emacs emacs -name workmachine-emacs   breaksw   case "homemachine-2":   # same as homemachine   setenv CVSROOT tzz@workmachine-external:/cvsroot   setenv CVS_RSH ssh   # but this is a Solaris machine, so use mailx (I could have used   # OSTYPE instead of $HOST for generality)   alias mail mailx   breaksw   default:   # default CVS root for all machine at work. Leave rsh as the   # default transport.   setenv CVSROOT tzz@workmachine:/cvsroot   breaksw   endsw    qing dan 3 zhong de huan jing she zhi zhu yao kao lv shi fou zheng que she zhi le CVS zi yuan ku gen 。 ru guo shi yong CVS, zhe shi zi dong she zhi shi wu yi shi suo you CVS ming ling ke yi cong ren he ji qi shang shi yong de yi zhong jian bian fang fa 。 ling wai , wo gei zhu yao Emacs chuang kou ti gong le yi ge ming cheng , zhe yang Enlightenment ke yi zhun que di zhao dao ta 。    wo ying gai shi yong $OSTYPE er bu shi $HOST, bing she zhi dan du de switch() yu ju lai chu li Solaris; dan suo you wei jiang mail qu bie ming wei mailx de yu ju dui wo lai shuo dou si hu you xie duo yu 。    qing dan 4: wo de .cshrc wen jian , di 3 bu fen : bie ming    yao chang shi xia mian ding yi de bie ming , zhi xu yao zai ti shi shang shu ru ta men 。"abc" bie ming jiang zi ji zai yi xing shang da yin "foreach?" bing deng dai nin de shu ru 。 li ru , ru guo shu ru "echo $a", ran hou zai xia yi ge ti shi shang shu ru "end", "echo" ming ling jiang zai $a zhong yun xing 1 dao 9, ran hou cong A dao Z, ran hou cong a dao z。    zui hou , wo de .logout fei chang jian dan 。 ta shi zai deng lu shell tui chu shi zhi xing de yi xi lie ming ling , dan zhi zai wo de ben di ji qi shang 。 zai suo you qi ta ji qi shang , ta shen me dou bu zuo 。    qing dan 5: wo de .logout wen jian   switch ($HOST)   case "homemachine":   # save the list of subscribed newsgroups, just in case:   # save only the first 2000 characters of each lines (the   # .newsrc file can have very long lines), then filter out the   # unsubscribed newsgroups, and save the output in ~/.subbed   cut -c 1-2000 ~/.newsrc | egrep -v "!" ~/.subbed   # remove any dead letter files (/bin/mail generates them)   rm ~/dead.letter   breaksw   default:   breaksw   endsw   Enlightenment he Eterm ding zhi    wo zui chang yong de chuang kou guan li qi shi Enlightenment。 wo xi huan ta suo yi shi yong ta 。 nin ke neng bu xi huan Enlightenment( yi xia cheng wei "E"), dan bu guan zen yang , nin de chuang kou guan li qi ye ke neng zhi chi E zhong wo suo xi huan de da duo shu te xing 。 yao fu zhi Eterm de gong neng bi jiao kun nan , jin guan aterm cheng xu zai mu de he xiao guo shang yu zhi lei si 。   E he Eterm dou shi yong zhu ti 。 zhu ti shi gei ren kan de , zai shi ji dang zhong bu pai shen me yong chang 。 wo fa xian ta men dui yu Eterm hen you yong , dan dui yu E, wo bu hui jiang zhu ti yong yu bian cheng zhi chi 。    wo dui E jin xing de zui chong yao de yi xiang xiu gai jiu shi geng gai le yu e16keyedit cheng xu de que sheng jian bang ding 。 wo jiang Alt-F1 dao Alt-F12 yang she cheng zhuo mian 1 dao 12, zhe yang ke yi kuai su di zai bu tong ren wu zhi jian qie huan 。 wo gei mou xie zhuo mian qu le bie ming , tian jia le an jian -- li ru ,Alt-Shift-M ke yi dai wo dao you jian zhuo mian 。    ling wai , wo huan rang Ctrl-Alt-M qi dong yi ge you jian chuang kou ( shi ji shang shi "emacs -name gnus -f gnus", yin wei wo shi yong Gnus lai yue du you jian )。 yi lei si de fang shi , wo rang Alt-Shift-Letter zhuan dao te ding zhuo mian , er Ctrl-Alt-Letter qi dong gai zhuo mian shang de yi ge cheng xu 。   E ke yi ji zhu cheng xu de wei zhi he ming ling xing tiao yong 。 zhe yi wei zhe ru guo cheng xu ju you du te de ming cheng ,E ke yi zai xia ci nin deng lu de shi hou chong xin qi dong ta , huo zhe zai xia ci nin qi dong ta de shi hou ji zhu ta de wei zhi 。 ming cheng shi chuang kou de X ming , tong chang yong -name shen shu zhi ding gei cheng xu 。   Eterm shi yong zhu ti lai zhi ding ding zhi xing wei 。 ke yi chang shi Eterm suo dai de suo you que sheng zhu ti ( li ru ,"Eterm -t mutt" yong yu mian xiang mutt de zhong duan , huo   
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