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da zao Linux an quan bao lei Perl de an quan xing jian ce

2008-05-19 06:25:44 编辑來源:互联网 评论
 
 
 
本文为【打造Linux安全堡垒Perl的安全性监测】的拼音翻译版
  CGI shi de hu lian wang shang de ren he ren dou ke yi zai ni de ji suan ji shang yun xing cheng xu , zhe jiu shi de CGI cheng wei shi jie shang zui liu xing de an quan lou dong 。 zuo wei cheng xu yuan , wo men de ze ren shi bu rang huai ren qin ru wo men de xi tong , dui yu wo men suo bian zhi de cheng xu lai shuo , yao zuo dao mei you lou dong ke zuan 。
  li ru , xia mian zhe ge CGI cheng xu , jiu shi ge huai cheng xu :
  #!/usr/bin/perl -w
  # cgi-bad ? yi ge bu hao de cgi jiao ben de li zi
  $file = param("FILE")
  or die "Must fill out the FILE field\n";
  unlink("/usr/local/public/data/$file")
  or die "Can delete $file : $!\n";
  gai jiao ben suo zuo de shi du chu zai biao dan zhong suo shu ru de wen jian ming , bing cong mu lu /usr/local/public/data/ zhong shan chu gai ming cheng de wen jian 。 cuo le ! gai jiao ben suo zuo de shi ji shang shi rang ren he yong hu dui zai wang luo fu wu qi shang usercode ke yi shan chu de ren he wen jian zuo shan chu cao zuo 。 qing kan :
  % setuid-bad ../../etc/apache/var/userdb
  wo men ben lai yao zuo de shi jian cha cheng xu de shen shu , yi que ding qi shi fou wei wen jian ming 。 wen ti shi ni de cheng xu wai bu suo chan sheng de shu ju yong dao le xi tong tiao yong shang , ru nlink(), open(), he system()。 er ni bing bu da suan rang zai ni de cheng xu zhi wai chan sheng de shu ju ying xiang dao wai bu shi jie 。
  Perl you ge xuan xiang , da kai hou , ke yi qiang po ni jian cha chang shu , huan jing , shu ru , huo qi ta you ke neng bei bu fu hao yi de ren li yong de lou dong 。 gai xuan xiang cheng wei “tainting”
  da kai Taint jian cha xuan xiang
  yao da kai taint jian cha xuan xiang , rang Perl dai yi ge -T xuan xiang :
  #!/usr/bin/perl -wT
  ru guo wo men zai shang shu cheng xu yun xing shi , dai you ?T xuan xiang , wo men hui kan dao ru xia xin xi :
  Insecure dependency in unlink while running with
  -T switch at setuid-bad line 5.
  Perl gen zong $file zhong de zhi , ta shi zai ni de cheng xu wai bu sheng cheng de ,( ta bei cheng wei “tainted”)。 unlink() bei ren wei shi ge bu an quan de cao zuo , yin wei ta dui wai bu shi jie you ying xiang : wen jian 。 zai bu an quan de cao zuo xia , qi tu shi yong mei you xin ren du de (tainted) shu ju shi wei xian de 。 zheng ru wo men yi jing kan dao de , shu ju ke neng you zha 。
  zhe xie lou dong ke yi you Perl de taint jian cha xuan xiang zai yun xing shi bu zhuo dao , bing qie shi de cheng xu ting xia lai 。
  Tainted shu ju
  Tainted shu ju lai yuan hen duo , bao kuo : lai yuan yu ni de huan jing san lie biao (the %ENV) , shen shu (@ARGV), du ru de wen jian he mu lu , lai yuan yu yun xing de cheng xu zhong , yi ji yi xie xi tong tiao yong de jie guo ( yong getpw du chu kou ling shu ju ku zhong de GECOS yu )。 ren he dui tainted zhi de cao zuo ( tian jia , he bing , cha ru ), qi jie guo zhi ye shi tainted。 zhe jiu hao xiang shi shu ju yi dan bei nian shang le wu dian , na me wu lun shu ju chuan bo dao na li , wu dian jiu hui bei dai dao na li 。
  jin you san zhong fang shi , ke yi de dao “untainted” zhi : shu ju zhi jie zai cheng xu zhong zhi ming ; shu ju lai zi yu an quan de han shu ( ru localtime); huo zhe shi yong zheng ze biao da shi ti qu lai zi bu an quan han shu de tainted chuan de yi bu fen 。
  $a = 4; # untainted
  $file = $ARGV[0]; # tainted
  $file =~ m{^([^/]+)$}
  or die "$file is not a good filename.\n";
  $untainted = $1; # untainted
  tong guo zheng ze biao da shi yong kuo hao kuo qi lai , chuang jian le $1, $2, ... bian liang 。 zhe xie dou shi untainted shu ju 。 tong guo zheng ze biao da shi , ni ke yi que xin ta jiu shi ni suo qi wang de zhi 。 ru guo pi pei shi bai , ni hui de dao shi bai xin xi 。 ru guo pi pei cheng gong ,$1 ... bian liang bao han le ni ke yi shi yong de untainted shu ju 。
  ru guo wo men yi jing da kai tainting xuan xiang , dang wo men shi tu zuo unlink() cao zuo shi ,Perl jie shi qi hui ting xia lai , gao su ni $file zhong bao han le tainted shu ju 。 wen jian ming shi tainted de , yin wei ta lai zi yu bu xin ren yuan : shi yong ni de cheng xu de ren 。
  huai dong zuo
  ru guo ni suo shi yong de shu ju shi tainted de , ni xiang yao Perl cheng xu suo zuo de da duo shu shi qing hui chan sheng chu cuo xin xi 。 ru guo wen jian ming huo cheng xu ming shi tainted de , na me yun xing cheng xu , da kai wen jian lai xie ru , yi ji shan chu wen jian , zhe xie cao zuo dou jiang bei jin zhi jin xing 。
  zhe yi jie jiang yan shi ru he zai zhe zhong chang he xia , jie chu tainted zhuang tai 。
  kao lv :
  system("ls *.h");
  Perl zai ni de chuan zhong kan dao le *, bing jue ding tiao yong shell, zhe yang :
  sh -c "ls *.h"
  dan shi , de que you ren ke neng yong jia de lu jing huan jing bian liang lai yun xing ni de cheng xu , cong er dao zhi tiao yong le cuo wu de sh huo ls。 suo yi , dui yu PATH bian liang yi ji SHELL zhong ke yi yong lai xiu gai qi xing wei de qi ta bian liang , ying gai jin xing untaint cao zuo 。
  yi ban , yun xing qi ta cheng xu shi , ni ying cai qu san xiang bu zhou :
  ming que ni de huan jing bian liang , shi de yun xing de shi shi ji cheng xu 。
  guan bi shell
  dui cheng xu de shen shu jin xing untaint cao zuo 。
  yong ru xia de deng jian dan fang shi qing chu ni de huan jing bian liang :
  delete @ENV{"IFS", "CDPATH", "ENV", "BASH_ENV"};
  $ENV{PATH} = "/bin:/usr/bin";
  di yi xing shan chu diao ke neng hui yin qi wen ti de huan jing bian liang , di er xing gei chu yi ge que bao an quan de PATH。 ni ke yi tian jia qi ta de mu lu dao PATH zhong , dan wu bi que bao ta men tong gai chu yi yang , shi you que ding zhi de 。
  guan bi shell ye yao ba wo hao fen cun 。Perl zai she ji dao you guan shell de cao zuo , ru open(), system(), backticks, he exec() tiao yong shi , you zi ji de gui ze , zhe xie gui ze bu tai rong yi zhang wo 。 zui hao de gui ze shi : bi mian shi yong backticks he pipe open() tiao yong , er shi shi yong system() he exec() , bing chuan gei ta men shen shu biao 。
  da duo shu ren xi guan yu kan dao ru xia de xie fa :
  system("someprogram arg1 arg2 arg3");
  ta men bu zhi dao huan ke zhe yang xie :
  system("someprogram", "arg1", "arg2", "arg3");
  zhe yang de xie fa , ke yi jing que di gao su Perl de ge ge shen shu shi shen me ,Perl jiang bu hui tiao yong shell。 exec() ye ju you du shen shu biao he bu tiao yong shell de te dian 。 er ru guo yao shi yong piped open() he backticks, jiu wu fa bao zheng bu hui yong dao shell。
  ru guo ni da suan shi yong piped open huo backticks, ni de yong ru xia de fang fa chong xin shi xian :
  $pid = open(COMMAND, "-|");
  die "Couldn fork: $!" unless defined $pid;
  if ($pid) {
  @lines = ;
  close(COMMAND);
  } else {
  exec("some", "program", "with", "args") or die "execing: $!";
  }
  yi ban lai shuo , ji shi ni de PATH yi jing zuo le an quan chu li , gei chu suo yun xing de cheng xu de wan zheng lu jing shi ge hao zhu yi 。 zhe jiu hui bi mian le cuo wu di tiao yong le /usr/bin/boom er bu shi /home/user/bin/boom zhe zhong qing kuang de fa sheng , yin wei zai PATH zhong /usr/bin wei yu /home/usr/bin/boom. zhi qian 。
  wen jian ming
  dui wen jian ming jin xing cao zuo shi , shi yong unlink() huo , huo zhe yong open() shi , shi you wei xian de 。
  cong mu lu zhong du ru de wen jian ming shi tainted de 。 ni ke yi da kai yi ge tainted wen jian ming lai du ru , dan ni bu neng da kai ta lai xie ru 。 cong wen jian zhong du shu ju , bu guan wen jian ming shi fou tainted, yi jing shi tainted de 。 yin wei yong dao le shell, ni bu neng yong lai de dao wen jian qing dan 。
  wei le jian cha wen jian ming shi fou shi hao de , ni de xie chu yi ge zheng ze biao da shi , bing tong he fa de wen jian ming jin xing pi pei 。 zai yi xie chang he , ke yi yong ru xia de jian dan fang fa lai jian cha ni de shu ju :
  $file = $ARGV[0];
  ($file =~ m{^([^/]+)$} && $file ne "." && $file ne "..")
  or die "Bad filename $file\n";
  $file = $1;
  gen ju ren he bu bao han xie gang de chuan de zheng ze biao da shi lai jian cha wen jian ming , zhe jiu ba zi mu lu pai chu zai wai , ran hou pai chu diao “.”( dang qian mu lu ) he “..”( dang qian mu lu de fu mu lu )。 ru guo zhe xie ce shi dou tong guo le ,$1 bian liang zhong cun fang de jiu shi wo men ke yi shi yong de wen jian ming 。
  wei le de dao pi pei mou zhong mo shi de wen jian ming qing dan , ni ji ke yi cong CPAN (File::KGlob he File::BSD shi liang ge you yong de mo kuai ) an zhuang you guan mo kuai , ye ke yi shi yong du mu lu cao zuo he zheng ze biao da shi :
  Untainting guo le tou ye hui you wen ti
  zai bu duo de chang he , mang mu di untaint ni de shu ju ye chan sheng an quan lou dong 。 suo yi ye ci shi xu yao Tainting de cun zai 。 ru guo xiang xia mian yi yang , mang mu di dui ren he shu ju dou untaint:
  $var =~ /(.*)/s; # yu chun
  $var = $1;
  zheng ze biao da shi zhong de /s fu hao shi de ju dian ke yi pi pei chuan zhong de ren he huan xing fu 。
  tong guo yong .* wo men pi pei le chuan zhong de yi qie fu hao , bing yong $1 cun fang gai shu ju de untainted de fu ben 。
  zheng ru zhu shi suo shuo de , zhe yang zuo shi yu chun de 。
  zong jie
  -T da kai tainting xuan xiang 。 lai zi ni cheng xu zhi wai de shu ju shi tainted, bu neng shi yong zhe xie shu ju , yi mian ying xiang wai bu shi jie 。
  yong zheng ze biao da shi he $1, $2, ... bian liang jin xing untaint。 yao yun xing qi ta cheng xu , she zhi hao path, bu yao shi yong shell, bing dui shen shu jin xing untaint。
  jin yi bu de yue du
  zai perlsec manpage zhong xiang xi chan shu le tainting de ji zhi , bing gei chu le jiao duo de li zi 。Chapter Perl Cookbook de di shi liu zhang tan le jin cheng guan li , yan shi le non-shell ban de piped opens he qi ta you qu de yong fa
  【原文】【汉音对照
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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  CGI shi de hu lian wang shang de ren he ren dou ke yi zai ni de ji suan ji shang yun xing cheng xu , zhe jiu shi de CGI cheng wei shi jie shang zui liu xing de an quan lou dong 。 zuo wei cheng xu yuan , wo men de ze ren shi bu rang huai ren qin ru wo men de xi tong , dui yu wo men suo bian zhi de cheng xu lai shuo , yao zuo dao mei you lou dong ke zuan 。    li ru , xia mian zhe ge CGI cheng xu , jiu shi ge huai cheng xu :   #!/usr/bin/perl -w   # cgi-bad ? yi ge bu hao de cgi jiao ben de li zi   $file = param("FILE")   or die "Must fill out the FILE field\n";   unlink("/usr/local/public/data/$file")   or die "Can delete $file : $!\n";    gai jiao ben suo zuo de shi du chu zai biao dan zhong suo shu ru de wen jian ming , bing cong mu lu /usr/local/public/data/ zhong shan chu gai ming cheng de wen jian 。 cuo le ! gai jiao ben suo zuo de shi ji shang shi rang ren he yong hu dui zai wang luo fu wu qi shang usercode ke yi shan chu de ren he wen jian zuo shan chu cao zuo 。 qing kan :   % setuid-bad ../../etc/apache/var/userdb    wo men ben lai yao zuo de shi jian cha cheng xu de shen shu , yi que ding qi shi fou wei wen jian ming 。 wen ti shi ni de cheng xu wai bu suo chan sheng de shu ju yong dao le xi tong tiao yong shang , ru nlink(), open(), he system()。 er ni bing bu da suan rang zai ni de cheng xu zhi wai chan sheng de shu ju ying xiang dao wai bu shi jie 。   Perl you ge xuan xiang , da kai hou , ke yi qiang po ni jian cha chang shu , huan jing , shu ru , huo qi ta you ke neng bei bu fu hao yi de ren li yong de lou dong 。 gai xuan xiang cheng wei “tainting”    da kai Taint jian cha xuan xiang    yao da kai taint jian cha xuan xiang , rang Perl dai yi ge -T xuan xiang :   #!/usr/bin/perl -wT    ru guo wo men zai shang shu cheng xu yun xing shi , dai you ?T xuan xiang , wo men hui kan dao ru xia xin xi :   Insecure dependency in unlink while running with   -T switch at setuid-bad line 5.   Perl gen zong $file zhong de zhi , ta shi zai ni de cheng xu wai bu sheng cheng de ,( ta bei cheng wei “tainted”)。 unlink() bei ren wei shi ge bu an quan de cao zuo , yin wei ta dui wai bu shi jie you ying xiang : wen jian 。 zai bu an quan de cao zuo xia , qi tu shi yong mei you xin ren du de (tainted) shu ju shi wei xian de 。 zheng ru wo men yi jing kan dao de , shu ju ke neng you zha 。    zhe xie lou dong ke yi you Perl de taint jian cha xuan xiang zai yun xing shi bu zhuo dao , bing qie shi de cheng xu ting xia lai 。   Tainted shu ju   Tainted shu ju lai yuan hen duo , bao kuo : lai yuan yu ni de huan jing san lie biao (the %ENV) , shen shu (@ARGV), du ru de wen jian he mu lu , lai yuan yu yun xing de cheng xu zhong , yi ji yi xie xi tong tiao yong de jie guo ( yong getpw du chu kou ling shu ju ku zhong de GECOS yu )。 ren he dui tainted zhi de cao zuo ( tian jia , he bing , cha ru ), qi jie guo zhi ye shi tainted。 zhe jiu hao xiang shi shu ju yi dan bei nian shang le wu dian , na me wu lun shu ju chuan bo dao na li , wu dian jiu hui bei dai dao na li 。    jin you san zhong fang shi , ke yi de dao “untainted” zhi : shu ju zhi jie zai cheng xu zhong zhi ming ; shu ju lai zi yu an quan de han shu ( ru localtime); huo zhe shi yong zheng ze biao da shi ti qu lai zi bu an quan han shu de tainted chuan de yi bu fen 。   $a = 4; # untainted   $file = $ARGV[0]; # tainted   $file =~ m{^([^/]+)$}   or die "$file is not a good filename.\n";   $untainted = $1; # untainted    tong guo zheng ze biao da shi yong kuo hao kuo qi lai , chuang jian le $1, $2, ... bian liang 。 zhe xie dou shi untainted shu ju 。 tong guo zheng ze biao da shi , ni ke yi que xin ta jiu shi ni suo qi wang de zhi 。 ru guo pi pei shi bai , ni hui de dao shi bai xin xi 。 ru guo pi pei cheng gong ,$1 ... bian liang bao han le ni ke yi shi yong de untainted shu ju 。    ru guo wo men yi jing da kai tainting xuan xiang , dang wo men shi tu zuo unlink() cao zuo shi ,Perl jie shi qi hui ting xia lai , gao su ni $file zhong bao han le tainted shu ju 。 wen jian ming shi tainted de , yin wei ta lai zi yu bu xin ren yuan : shi yong ni de cheng xu de ren 。    huai dong zuo    ru guo ni suo shi yong de shu ju shi tainted de , ni xiang yao Perl cheng xu suo zuo de da duo shu shi qing hui chan sheng chu cuo xin xi 。 ru guo wen jian ming huo cheng xu ming shi tainted de , na me yun xing cheng xu , da kai wen jian lai xie ru , yi ji shan chu wen jian , zhe xie cao zuo dou jiang bei jin zhi jin xing 。    zhe yi jie jiang yan shi ru he zai zhe zhong chang he xia , jie chu tainted zhuang tai 。    kao lv :   system("ls *.h");   Perl zai ni de chuan zhong kan dao le *, bing jue ding tiao yong shell, zhe yang :   sh -c "ls *.h"    dan shi , de que you ren ke neng yong jia de lu jing huan jing bian liang lai yun xing ni de cheng xu , cong er dao zhi tiao yong le cuo wu de sh huo ls。 suo yi , dui yu PATH bian liang yi ji SHELL zhong ke yi yong lai xiu gai qi xing wei de qi ta bian liang , ying gai jin xing untaint cao zuo 。    yi ban , yun xing qi ta cheng xu shi , ni ying cai qu san xiang bu zhou :    ming que ni de huan jing bian liang , shi de yun xing de shi shi ji cheng xu 。    guan bi shell    dui cheng xu de shen shu jin xing untaint cao zuo 。    yong ru xia de deng jian dan fang shi qing chu ni de huan jing bian liang :   delete @ENV{"IFS", "CDPATH", "ENV", "BASH_ENV"};   $ENV{PATH} = "/bin:/usr/bin";    di yi xing shan chu diao ke neng hui yin qi wen ti de huan jing bian liang , di er xing gei chu yi ge que bao an quan de PATH。 ni ke yi tian jia qi ta de mu lu dao PATH zhong , dan wu bi que bao ta men tong gai chu yi yang , shi you que ding zhi de 。    guan bi shell ye yao ba wo hao fen cun 。Perl zai she ji dao you guan shell de cao zuo , ru open(), system(), backticks, he exec() tiao yong shi , you zi ji de gui ze , zhe xie gui ze bu tai rong yi zhang wo 。 zui hao de gui ze shi : bi mian shi yong backticks he pipe open() tiao yong , er shi shi yong system() he exec() , bing chuan gei ta men shen shu biao 。    da duo shu ren xi guan yu kan dao ru xia de xie fa :   system("someprogram arg1 arg2 arg3");    ta men bu zhi dao huan ke zhe yang xie :   system("someprogram", "arg1", "arg2", "arg3");    zhe yang de xie fa , ke yi jing que di gao su Perl de ge ge shen shu shi shen me ,Perl jiang bu hui tiao yong shell。 exec() ye ju you du shen shu biao he bu tiao yong shell de te dian 。 er ru guo yao shi yong piped open() he backticks, jiu wu fa bao zheng bu hui yong dao shell。    ru guo ni da suan shi yong piped open huo backticks, ni de yong ru xia de fang fa chong xin shi xian :   $pid = open(COMMAND, "-|");   die "Couldn fork: $!" unless defined $pid;   if ($pid) {   @lines = ;   close(COMMAND);   } else {   exec("some", "program", "with", "args") or die "execing: $!";   }    yi ban lai shuo , ji shi ni de PATH yi jing zuo le an quan chu li , gei chu suo yun xing de cheng xu de wan zheng lu jing shi ge hao zhu yi 。 zhe jiu hui bi mian le cuo wu di tiao yong le /usr/bin/boom er bu shi /home/user/bin/boom zhe zhong qing kuang de fa sheng , yin wei zai PATH zhong /usr/bin wei yu /home/usr/bin/boom. zhi qian 。    wen jian ming    dui wen jian ming jin xing cao zuo shi , shi yong unlink() huo , huo zhe yong open() shi , shi you wei xian de 。    cong mu lu zhong du ru de wen jian ming shi tainted de 。 ni ke yi da kai yi ge tainted wen jian ming lai du ru , dan ni bu neng da kai ta lai xie ru 。 cong wen jian zhong du shu ju , bu guan wen jian ming shi fou tainted, yi jing shi tainted de 。 yin wei yong dao le shell, ni bu neng yong lai de dao wen jian qing dan 。    wei le jian cha wen jian ming shi fou shi hao de , ni de xie chu yi ge zheng ze biao da shi , bing tong he fa de wen jian ming jin xing pi pei 。 zai yi xie chang he , ke yi yong ru xia de jian dan fang fa lai jian cha ni de shu ju :   $file = $ARGV[0];   ($file =~ m{^([^/]+)$} && $file ne "." && $file ne "..")   or die "Bad filename $file\n";   $file = $1;    gen ju ren he bu bao han xie gang de chuan de zheng ze biao da shi lai jian cha wen jian ming , zhe jiu ba zi mu lu pai chu zai wai , ran hou pai chu diao “.”( dang qian mu lu ) he “..”( dang qian mu lu de fu mu lu )。 ru guo zhe xie ce shi dou tong guo le ,$1 bian liang zhong cun fang de jiu shi wo men ke yi shi yong de wen jian ming 。    wei le de dao pi pei mou zhong mo shi de wen jian ming qing dan , ni ji ke yi cong CPAN (File::KGlob he File::BSD shi liang ge you yong de mo kuai ) an zhuang you guan mo kuai , ye ke yi shi yong du mu lu cao zuo he zheng ze biao da shi :   Untainting guo le tou ye hui you wen ti    zai bu duo de chang he , mang mu di untaint ni de shu ju ye chan sheng an quan lou dong 。 suo yi ye ci shi xu yao Tainting de cun zai 。 ru guo xiang xia mian yi yang , mang mu di dui ren he shu ju dou untaint:   $var =~ /(.*)/s; # yu chun   $var = $1;    zheng ze biao da shi zhong de /s fu hao shi de ju dian ke yi pi pei chuan zhong de ren he huan xing fu 。    tong guo yong .* wo men pi pei le chuan zhong de yi qie fu hao , bing yong $1 cun fang gai shu ju de untainted de fu ben 。    zheng ru zhu shi suo shuo de , zhe yang zuo shi yu chun de 。    zong jie   -T da kai tainting xuan xiang 。 lai zi ni cheng xu zhi wai de shu ju shi tainted, bu neng shi yong zhe xie shu ju , yi mian ying xiang wai bu shi jie 。    yong zheng ze biao da shi he $1, $2, ... bian liang jin xing untaint。 yao yun xing qi ta cheng xu , she zhi hao path, bu yao shi yong shell, bing dui shen shu jin xing untaint。    jin yi bu de yue du    zai perlsec manpage zhong xiang xi chan shu le tainting de ji zhi , bing gei chu le jiao duo de li zi 。Chapter Perl Cookbook de di shi liu zhang tan le jin cheng guan li , yan shi le non-shell ban de piped opens he qi ta you qu de yong fa   
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