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空中动物兵:军鸽 动物世界

2011-11-29 00:15:37 编辑來源:互联网 国际版 评论
 
 
本文为【空中动物兵:军鸽 动物世界】的汉字拼音对照版显示拼音
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鸽子是人类的忠实朋友,历来被视为友善与和平的吉祥动物。古往今来,这方面的事例不胜 枚举。在现代战争史上,利用鸽子来执行侦察、通信、救援任务的事例也屡见不鲜。   军鸽之所以能创奇迹,主要是由于它具有很强的飞行能力,时速可达100余公里,持续飞行 时间可达数小时甚至几十小时。还具有极强的记忆力、惊人的辨别方向的识别目标的能力, 即使被带到遥远陌生地方,也能独自返回。在战场上从未发生过"逃兵"和降敌叛变的鸽子 。经过严格训练的军鸽能担任侦察敌情、空中摄影、传递信件情报、引导飞行等任务。   军鸽通信兵 1942年,一艘英国潜艇在大西洋上被德军舰艇穷追不舍,遭到一枚深水炸弹的攻击,潜艇被炸开一个大口子,海水涌进艇体内,很快就沉到了海底。这时潜艇内的人员大部分已经毙命,只有1个隔离舱内还有22人,艇长也在其中。可是潜艇已无法开动,被困在黑黝黝的大海深处。在这危急时刻,艇长突然想起指挥舱内还有1对信鸽,便把最后一丝生存希望全部寄托在这对信鸽身上。他命令给这对信鸽带上求救信后,装进一个特制的密封舱内,然后,推入鱼雷发射管里,再将海水和高压气体注进鱼雷发身管,艇长一声令下,装着鸽子的密封舱发射到水面上。这个密封舱的舱盖上装有定时装置,到预定时间,舱盖自动打开,其中1只聪明的鸽子钻出密封舱,展翅飞向海军基地。基地指挥官立即派出救援部队,22中艇员全部得救了。   第二次世界大战中,一支美军侦察分队空降到缅甸境内日军驻地后方,全在空降时不幸将无 线电收发报机损坏,搜集到的大量情报发送不出去,而这些情报对部队正在进行的作战又极 为重要。在这紧迫时刻,他们随带的一只名叫"森林汉"的军鸽帮了大忙。这只军鸽虽然还 不满半岁,可是经过良好的训练,很有灵气。它带着侦察分队搜集的情报,飞越山岳丛林, 行程360余千米,及时将情况送达盟军指挥部。这个隐蔽得极其严密的指挥部,即使是有经 验的特工寻找起来也不那么容易,而这只小小的鸽子却准确无误地找到了,令人叹服。   1944年底,一部分美军在滇缅战场上被日军包围,正待求援的危急时刻,电台又全部遭到了破坏,这时一只名叫"浅雨点"的雌性军鸽,以其高超的本领,连续飞行9个小时,行程510千米,将求援信及时送到了盟军司令部,援兵及时赶到,出其不意地将日军击溃,救出了危在旦夕的被围困的部队。这只军鸽立下了不朽的战功。战后被授予"缅甸皇后"称号。 军鸽侦察兵 第一次世界大战时,法国间谍带上经过专门训练、装有微型照相机的鸽子潜入 到德国境内,然后将它们一组组地放飞。在鸽子身上安装的照相机里都有特殊的定时装置, 第隔一段时间,就自动按一次快门。当这些鸽子飞回原地时,给法军带回了很多珍贵的情报 。  20世纪70年代后,美国情报机构别出心裁地研制出一种大功率的窃听器,把它系在经过专门训练的鸽子身上,然后将一束激光照射到需要窃听的目标上,鸽子就会乖乖地按照激光的导向,飞落到指定的地点。用嘴啄一下身上的按钮,窃听器就会脱离鸽身,并开始窃听。随后,鸽子若无其事地飞回原地。在近期发生的波黑战争中,照相侦察军鸽就曾大显身手。   人类在很久前就发现鸽子具有极强的判别方位、识别目标的能力,但是无法予以正确解释。 1855年才有人第一次提出信鸽依靠地磁导航的理论,科学家在鸽子头上装上个小磁铁,试图干扰它的磁定向能力,果然鸽子辨别方向的本领消失了。后来,美国生物学家利用高技术手段在鸽子的头部解剖出1平方毫米的磁性细胞组织。这种细胞内的细胞质会顺着磁场方向有序地进行排列,显示出磁性,从而真正揭开了鸽子辨别方向的秘密。   在高技术侦察手段异常发达的今天,许多国家的军队仍然保留着专门训练军鸽的机构。仅有 4万现役军人的瑞士,在军队中服役的军鸽就达4万余只。法军有100多只训练有素的军鸽, 还有几万只民间训养的预备役军鸽,都在专门的机构登记注册,随时可以征用。   我军从1951年开始,将军鸽列入正式编制经过专门训练的军鸽,在边境自卫还击作战中,在边防部队被风雪围困的恶劣环境下,指战员们用军鸽成功地进行了通信联络,甚至到后方"空运"急救药品。
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