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动态网页技术PHP关于cookie和session的分析

2008-12-28 07:39:19 编辑來源:互联网 国际版 评论
 
 
本文为【动态网页技术PHP关于cookie和session的分析】的汉字拼音对照版显示拼音
  1. PHPdeCOOKIE

  cookie shiyizhongzaiyuanchengliulanqiduanchucunshujubingyicilaigenzongheshibieyonghudejizhi

  PHPzaihttpxieyidetouxinxilifasongcookie, yinci setcookie() hanshubixuzaiqitaxinxibeishuchudaoliulanqiqiantiaoyongzhehedui header() hanshudexianzhileisi

  1.1 shezhicookie:

   keyiyong setcookie() huo setrawcookie() hanshulaishezhi cookieyekeyitongguoxiangkehuduanzhijiefasonghttptoulaishezhi.

  1.1.1 使shiyongsetcookie()hanshushezhicookie:

  bool setcookie ( string name [, string value [, int expire [, string path [, string domain [, bool secure [, bool httponly]]]]]] )

   name: cookiebianliangming

   value: cookiebianliangdezhi

   expire: youxiaoqijieshudeshijian,

   path: youxiaomulu,

   domain: youxiaoyuming,dingjiyuweiyi

   secure: ruguozhiwei1,zecookiezhinengzaihttpslianjieshangyouxiao,ruguoweimorenzhi0,zehttphehttpsdoukeyi.

  lizi:

  <?php

  $value = 'something from somewhere';

  setcookie("TestCookie", $value); /* jiandancookieshezhi */

  setcookie("TestCookie", $value, time()+3600); /* youxiaoqi1gexiaoshi */

  setcookie("TestCookie", $value, time()+3600, "/~rasmus/", ".example.com", 1); /* youxiaomulu /~rasmus,youxiaoyumingexample.comjiqisuoyouziyuming */

  ?>

  shezhiduogecookiebianliang: setcookie('var[a]','value');yongshuzulaibiaoshibianliang,dantadexiabiaobuyongyinhao.zheyangjiukeyiyong$_COOKIE[var][a]laiduqugaiCOOKIEbianliang.

  1.1.2. 使shiyongheader()shezhicookie;

  header("Set-Cookie: name=$value[;path=$path[;domain=xxx.com[;...]]");

  houmiandeshenshuheshangmianliechusetcookiehanshudeshenshuyiyang.

  biru:

  $value = 'something from somewhere';

  header("Set-Cookie:name=$value");

  1.2 Cookiededuqu:

  zhijieyongphpneizhichaojiquanjubianliang $_COOKIEjiukeyiduquliulanqiduandecookie.

  shangmianlizizhongshezhilecookie"TestCookie",xianzaiwomenlaiduqu:

  print $_COOKIE['TestCookie'];

  COOKIEshibushibeishuchule?!

  1.3 shanchucookie

  zhixubayouxiaoshijiansheweixiaoyudangqianshijian, hebazhishezhiweikong.liru:

  setcookie("name","",time()-1);

  yongheader()leisi.

  1.4 changjianwentijiejue:

  1) yongsetcookie()shiyoucuowutishi,kenengshiyinweitiaoyongsetcookie()qianmianyoushuchuhuokongge.yekenengnidewendang使shicongqitazifujizhuanhuanguolai,wendanghoumiankenengdaiyouBOMqianming(jiushizaiwenjianneirongtianjiayixieyincangdeBOMzifu).jiejuedebanfajiushi使shinidewendangbuchuxianzhezhongqingkuang.huanyoutongguo使shiyongob_start()hanshuyouyenengchuliyidian.

  2) $_COOKIEshoumagic_quotes_gpcyingxiang,kenengzidongzhuanyi

  3) 使shiyongdeshihou,youbiyaoceshiyonghushifouzhichicookie

  <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]-->

  1.5 cookiegongzuojili:

  youxiexuexizhebijiaochongdong,meixinsibayuanliyanjiu,suoyiwobatafanghoumian.

  a) fuwuqitongguosuizhexiangyingfasongyigehttpdeSet-Cookietou,zaikehujizhongshezhiyigecookie(duogecookieyaoduogetou).

  b) kehuduanzidongxiangfuwuqiduanfasongyigehttpdecookietou,fuwuqijieshouduqu.

  HTTP/1.x 200 OK

  X-Powered-By: PHP/5.2.1

  Set-Cookie: TestCookie=something from somewhere; path=/

  Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 2007 18:52:00 GMT

  Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0

  Pragma: no-cache

  Content-type: text/html

  zheyixingshixianlecookiegongneng,shoudaozhexinghou

  Set-Cookie: TestCookie=something from somewhere; path=/

  liulanqijiangzaikehuduandecipanshangchuangjianyigecookiewenjian,bingzailimianxieru:

  TestCookie=something from somewhere;

  /

  zheyixingjiushiwomenyongsetcookie('TestCookie','something from somewhere','/');dejieguo.yejiushiyongheader('Set-Cookie: TestCookie=something from somewhere; path=/');dejieguo.

  <!--[endif]-->

  2. PHPdeSession

  session使shiyongguoqishijianshewei0decookie,bingqiejiangyigechengweisession IDdeweiyibiaoshifu(yichangchuanzifuchuan),zaifuwuqiduantongbushengchengyixiesessionwenjian(keyizijidingyisessiondebaocunleixing),yuyonghujiguanlianqilai.webyingyongchengxucunzhuyuzhexiesessionxiangguandeshuju,bingqierangshujusuizheyonghuzaiyemianzhijianchuandi.

  访fangwenwangzhandelaikehuibeifenpeiyigeweiyidebiaoshifujisuoweidehuihua IDtayaomecunfangzaikehuduande cookieyaomejingyou URL chuandi

  huihuazhichiyuanxuyonghuzhucerenyishumudebianliangbingbaoliugeigegeqingqiu使shiyongdanglaike访fangwenwangzhanshiPHP huizidongruguo session.auto_start beishewei 1huozaiyonghuqingqiushiyou session_start() mingquetiaoyonghuo session_register() anzhongtiaoyongjianchaqingqiuzhongshifoufasongletedingdehuihua IDruguoshizezhiqianbaocundehuanjingjiubeichongjian

  2.1 sessionIDdechuansong

  2.1.1 tongguocookiechuansongsessin ID

   使shiyongsession_start()tiaoyongsession,fuwuqiduanzaishengchengsessionwenjiandetongshi,shengchengsession IDhaxizhihemorenzhiweiPHPSESSIDdesession name,bingxiangkehuduanfasongbianliangwei(morendeshi)PHPSESSID(session name),zhiweiyige128weidehaxizhi.fuwuqiduanjiangtongguogaicookieyukehuduanjinxingjiaohu.

   sessionbianliangdezhijingphpneibuxiliehuahoubaocunzaifuwuqijiqishangdewenbenwenjianzhong,hekehuduandebianliangmingmorenqingkuangxiaweiPHPSESSIDdecooliejinxingduiyingjiaohu.

   jifuwuqizidongfasonglehttptou:header('Set-Cookie: session_name()=session_id(); path=/');

  jisetcookie(session_name(),session_id());

   dangconggaiyetiaozhuandaodexinyemianbingtiaoyongsession_start()hou,PHPjiangjianchayugeidingIDxiangguanliandefuwuqiduancunzhudesessionshuju,ruguomeizhaodao,zexinjianyigeshujuji.

  2.1.2 tongguoURLchuansongsession ID

  zhiyouzaiyonghujinzhi使shiyongcookiedeshihoucaiyongzhezhongfangfa,yinweiliulanqicookieyijingtongyong,weianquanqijian,kebuyonggaifangfa.

  <a href="p.php?<?php print session_name() ?>=<?php print session_id() ?>">xxx</a>,yekeyitongguoPOSTlaichuandisessionzhi.

  2.2 sessionjibenyongfashili

  <?php

  // page1.php

  session_start();

  echo 'Welcome to page #1';

  /* chuangjiansessionbianliangbinggeisessionbianliangfuzhi */

  $_SESSION['favcolor'] = 'green';

  $_SESSION['animal'] = 'cat';

  $_SESSION['time'] = time();

  // ruguokehuduan使shiyongcookie,kezhijiechuandisessiondaopage2.php

  echo '<br /><a href="page2.php">page 2</a>';

  // ruguokehuduanjinyongcookie

  echo '<br /><a href="page2.php?' . SID . '">page 2</a>';

  /*

  morenphp5.2.1xia,SIDzhiyouzaicookiebeixierudetongshicaihuiyouzhi,ruguogaisession

  duiyingdecookieyijingcunzai,nameSIDjiangwei(weidingyi)kong

  */

  ?>

  <?php

  // page2.php

  session_start();

  print $_SESSION['animal']; // dayinchudangesession

  var_dump($_SESSION); // dayinchupage1.phpchuanguolaidesessionzhi

  ?>

  2.3 使shiyongsessionhanshukongzhiyemianhuancun.

   henduoqingkuangxia,womenyaoquedingwomendewangyeshifouzaikehuduanhuancun,huoyaoshezhihuancundeyouxiaoshijian,biruwomendewangyeshangyouxieminganneirongbingqieyaodenglucainengchakan,ruguohuancundaobendile,keyizhijiedakaibendidehuancunjiukeyibudengluerliulandaowangyele.

  使shiyongsession_cache_limiter('private');keyikongzhiyemiankehuduanhuancun,bixuzaisession_start()zhiqiantiaoyong.

  gengduoshenshujianhttp://blog.chinaunix.net/u/27731/showart.php?id=258087dekehuduanhuancunkongzhi.

   kongzhikehuduanhuancunshijianyong session_cache_expire(int);danwei(s).yeyaozaisession_start()qiantiaoyong.

   zhezhishi使shiyongsessiondeqingkuangxiakongzhihuancundefangfa,womenhuankeyizaiheader()zhongkongzhikongzhiyemiandehuancun.

  2.4 shanchusession

  yaosanbushixian.

  <?php

  session_destroy(); // diyibu: shanchufuwuqiduansessionwenjian,zhe使shiyong

  setcookie(session_name(),'',time()-3600); // dierbu: shanchushijidesession:

  $_SESSION = array(); // disanbu: shanchu$_SESSIONquanjubianliangshuzu

  ?>

  2.5 sessionzaiPHPdaxingwebyingyongzhongde使shiyong

  duiyu访fangwenliangdadezhandian,yongmorendesessioncunzhufangshibingbushihe,muqianzuiyoudefangfashiyongshujukucunqusession.zheshi,hanshubool session_set_save_handler ( callback open, callback close, callback read, callback write, callback destroy, callback gc )jiushitigonggeiwomenjiejuezhegewentidefangan.

  gaihanshu使shiyongde6gehanshuruxia:

  1. bool open() yonglaidakaihuihuacunchujizhi,

  2. bool close() guanbihuihuacunchucaozuo.

  3. mixde read() congcunchuzhongzhuangzaisessionshujushi使shiyongzhegehanshu

  4. bool write() jianggeidingsession IDdesuoyoushujuxiedaocunchuzhong

  5. bool destroy() pohuaiyuzhidingdehuihuaIDxiangguanliandeshuju

  6. bool gc() duicunchuxitongzhongdeshujujinxinglajishouji

  lizijianphpshoucesession_set_save_handler() hanshu.

  ruguoyongleilaichuli,yong

  session_set_save_handler(

   array('className','open'),

   array('className','close'),

   array('className','read'),

   array('className','write'),

   array('className','destroy'),

   array('className','gc'),

  )

  tiaoyongclassNameleizhongde6gejingtaifangfa.classNamekeyihuanduixiangjiubuyongtiaoyongjingtaifangfa,danshiyongjingtaichengyuanbuyongshengchengduixiang,xingnenggenghao.

  2.6 changyongsessionhanshu:

  bool session_start(void); chushihuasession

  bool session_destroy(void): shanchufuwuqiduansessionguanlianwenjian

  string session_id() dangqiansessiondeid

  string session_name() dangqiancunqudesessionmingcheng,yejiushikehuduanbaocunsession IDdecookiemingcheng.morenPHPSESSID

  array session_get_cookie_params() yuzhegesessionxiangguanliandesessiondexijie.

  string session_cache_limiter() kongzhi使shiyongsessiondeyemiandekehuduanhuancun

  ini session_cache_expire() kongzhikehuduanhuancunshijian

  bool session_destroy() shanchufuwuqiduanbaocunsessionxinxidewenjian

  void session_set_cookie_params ( int lifetime [, string path [, string domain [, bool secure [, bool httponly]]]] )shezhiyuzhegesessionxiangguanliandesessiondexijie

  bool session_set_save_handler ( callback open, callback close, callback read, callback write, callback destroy, callback gc )dingyichulisessiondehanshu,(bushi使shiyongmorendefangshi)

  bool session_regenerate_id([bool delete_old_session]) fenpeixindesession id

  2.7 sessionanquanwenti

  gongjizhetongguotouruhendadejinglichangshihuodexianyouyonghudeyouxiaohuihuaID,youlehuihuaid,tamenjiuyoukenengnenggouzaixitongzhongyongyouyuciyonghuxiangtongdenengli.

  yinci,womenzhuyaojiejuedesilushixiaoyansession IDdeyouxiaoxing.

  <?php

  if(!isset($_SESSION['user_agent'])){

   $_SESSION['user_agent'] = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'].$_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'];

  }

  /* ruguoyonghusession IDshiweizao */

  elseif ($_SESSION['user_agent'] != $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'] . $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']) {

   session_regenerate_id();原文
 
 
1. PHP的COOKIE cookie 是一种在远程浏览器端储存数据并以此来跟踪和识别用户的机制。 PHP在http协议的头信息里发送cookie, 因此 setcookie() 函数必须在其它信息被输出到浏览器前调用,这和对 header() 函数的限制类似。 1.1 设置cookie: 可以用 setcookie() 或 setrawcookie() 函数来设置 cookie。也可以通过向客户端直接发送http头来设置. 1.1.1 使用setcookie()函数设置cookie: bool setcookie ( string name [, string value [, int expire [, string path [, string domain [, bool secure [, bool httponly]]]]]] ) name: cookie变量名 value: cookie变量的值 expire: 有效期结束的时间, path: 有效目录, domain: 有效域名,顶级域唯一 secure: 如果值为1,则cookie只能在https连接上有效,如果为默认值0,则http和https都可以. 例子: <?php $value = 'something from somewhere'; setcookie("TestCookie", $value); /* 简单cookie设置 */ setcookie("TestCookie", $value, time()+3600); /* 有效期1个小时 */ setcookie("TestCookie", $value, time()+3600, "/~rasmus/", ".example.com", 1); /* 有效目录 /~rasmus,有效域名example.com及其所有子域名 */ ?> 设置多个cookie变量: setcookie('var[a]','value');用数组来表示变量,但他的下标不用引号.这样就可以用$_COOKIE[‘var’][‘a’]来读取该COOKIE变量. 1.1.2. 使用header()设置cookie; header("Set-Cookie: name=$value[;path=$path[;domain=xxx.com[;...]]"); 后面的参数和上面列出setcookie函数的参数一样. 比如: $value = 'something from somewhere'; header("Set-Cookie:name=$value"); 1.2 Cookie的读取: 直接用php内置超级全局变量 $_COOKIE就可以读取浏览器端的cookie. 上面例子中设置了cookie"TestCookie",现在我们来读取: print $_COOKIE['TestCookie']; COOKIE是不是被输出了?! 1.3 删除cookie 只需把有效时间设为小于当前时间, 和把值设置为空.例如: setcookie("name","",time()-1); 用header()类似. 1.4 常见问题解决: 1) 用setcookie()时有错误提示,可能是因为调用setcookie()前面有输出或空格.也可能你的文档使从其他字符集转换过来,文档后面可能带有BOM签名(就是在文件内容添加一些隐藏的BOM字符).解决的办法就是使你的文档不出现这种情况.还有通过使用ob_start()函数有也能处理一点. 2) $_COOKIE受magic_quotes_gpc影响,可能自动转义 3) 使用的时候,有必要测试用户是否支持cookie <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]--> 1.5 cookie工作机理: 有些学习者比较冲动,没心思把原理研究,所以我把它放后面. a) 服务器通过随着响应发送一个http的Set-Cookie头,在客户机中设置一个cookie(多个cookie要多个头). b) 客户端自动向服务器端发送一个http的cookie头,服务器接收读取. HTTP/1.x 200 OK X-Powered-By: PHP/5.2.1 Set-Cookie: TestCookie=something from somewhere; path=/ Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 2007 18:52:00 GMT Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0 Pragma: no-cache Content-type: text/html 这一行实现了cookie功能,收到这行后 Set-Cookie: TestCookie=something from somewhere; path=/ 浏览器将在客户端的磁盘上创建一个cookie文件,并在里面写入: TestCookie=something from somewhere; / 这一行就是我们用setcookie('TestCookie','something from somewhere','/');的结果.也就是用header('Set-Cookie: TestCookie=something from somewhere; path=/');的结果. <!--[endif]--> 2. PHP的Session session使用过期时间设为0的cookie,并且将一个称为session ID的唯一标识符(一长串字符串),在服务器端同步生成一些session文件(可以自己定义session的保存类型),与用户机关联起来.web应用程序存贮与这些session相关的数据,并且让数据随着用户在页面之间传递. 访问网站的来客会被分配一个唯一的标识符,即所谓的会话 ID。它要么存放在客户端的 cookie,要么经由 URL 传递。 会话支持允许用户注册任意数目的变量并保留给各个请求使用。当来客访问网站时,PHP 会自动(如果 session.auto_start 被设为 1)或在用户请求时(由 session_start() 明确调用或 session_register() 暗中调用)检查请求中是否发送了特定的会话 ID。如果是,则之前保存的环境就被重建。 2.1 sessionID的传送 2.1.1 通过cookie传送sessin ID 使用session_start()调用session,服务器端在生成session文件的同时,生成session ID哈希值和默认值为PHPSESSID的session name,并向客户端发送变量为(默认的是)PHPSESSID(session name),值为一个128位的哈希值.服务器端将通过该cookie与客户端进行交互. session变量的值经php内部系列化后保存在服务器机器上的文本文件中,和客户端的变量名默认情况下为PHPSESSID的coolie进行对应交互. 即服务器自动发送了http头:header('Set-Cookie: session_name()=session_id(); path=/'); 即setcookie(session_name(),session_id()); 当从该页跳转到的新页面并调用session_start()后,PHP将检查与给定ID相关联的服务器端存贮的session数据,如果没找到,则新建一个数据集. 2.1.2 通过URL传送session ID 只有在用户禁止使用cookie的时候才用这种方法,因为浏览器cookie已经通用,为安全起见,可不用该方法. <a href="p.php?<?php print session_name() ?>=<?php print session_id() ?>">xxx</a>,也可以通过POST来传递session值. 2.2 session基本用法实例 <?php // page1.php session_start(); echo 'Welcome to page #1'; /* 创建session变量并给session变量赋值 */ $_SESSION['favcolor'] = 'green'; $_SESSION['animal'] = 'cat'; $_SESSION['time'] = time(); // 如果客户端使用cookie,可直接传递session到page2.php echo '<br /><a href="page2.php">page 2</a>'; // 如果客户端禁用cookie echo '<br /><a href="page2.php?' . SID . '">page 2</a>'; /* 默认php5.2.1下,SID只有在cookie被写入的同时才会有值,如果该session 对应的cookie已经存在,那么SID将为(未定义)空 */ ?> <?php // page2.php session_start(); print $_SESSION['animal']; // 打印出单个session var_dump($_SESSION); // 打印出page1.php传过来的session值 ?> 2.3 使用session函数控制页面缓存. 很多情况下,我们要确定我们的网页是否在客户端缓存,或要设置缓存的有效时间,比如我们的网页上有些敏感内容并且要登录才能查看,如果缓存到本地了,可以直接打开本地的缓存就可以不登录而浏览到网页了. 使用session_cache_limiter('private');可以控制页面客户端缓存,必须在session_start()之前调用. 更多参数见[url=http://blog.chinaunix.net/u/27731/showart.php?id=258087]http://blog.chinaunix.net/u/27731/showart.php?id=258087[/url]的客户端缓存控制. 控制客户端缓存时间用 session_cache_expire(int);单位(s).也要在session_start()前调用. 这只是使用session的情况下控制缓存的方法,我们还可以在header()中控制控制页面的缓存. 2.4 删除session 要三步实现. <?php session_destroy(); // 第一步: 删除服务器端session文件,这使用 setcookie(session_name(),'',time()-3600); // 第二步: 删除实际的session: $_SESSION = array(); // 第三步: 删除$_SESSION全局变量数组 ?> 2.5 session在PHP大型web应用中的使用 对于访问量大的站点,用默认的session存贮方式并不适合,目前最优的方法是用数据库存取session.这时,函数bool session_set_save_handler ( callback open, callback close, callback read, callback write, callback destroy, callback gc )就是提供给我们解决这个问题的方案. 该函数使用的6个函数如下: 1. bool open() 用来打开会话存储机制, 2. bool close() 关闭会话存储操作. 3. mixde read() 从存储中装在session数据时使用这个函数 4. bool write() 将给定session ID的所有数据写到存储中 5. bool destroy() 破坏与指定的会话ID相关联的数据 6. bool gc() 对存储系统中的数据进行垃圾收集 例子见php手册session_set_save_handler() 函数. 如果用类来处理,用 session_set_save_handler( array('className','open'), array('className','close'), array('className','read'), array('className','write'), array('className','destroy'), array('className','gc'), ) 调用className类中的6个静态方法.className可以换对象就不用调用静态方法,但是用静态成员不用生成对象,性能更好. 2.6 常用session函数: bool session_start(void); 初始化session bool session_destroy(void): 删除服务器端session关联文件。 string session_id() 当前session的id string session_name() 当前存取的session名称,也就是客户端保存session ID的cookie名称.默认PHPSESSID。 array session_get_cookie_params() 与这个session相关联的session的细节. string session_cache_limiter() 控制使用session的页面的客户端缓存 ini session_cache_expire() 控制客户端缓存时间 bool session_destroy() 删除服务器端保存session信息的文件 void session_set_cookie_params ( int lifetime [, string path [, string domain [, bool secure [, bool httponly]]]] )设置与这个session相关联的session的细节 bool session_set_save_handler ( callback open, callback close, callback read, callback write, callback destroy, callback gc )定义处理session的函数,(不是使用默认的方式) bool session_regenerate_id([bool delete_old_session]) 分配新的session id 2.7 session安全问题 攻击者通过投入很大的精力尝试获得现有用户的有效会话ID,有了会话id,他们就有可能能够在系统中拥有与此用户相同的能力. 因此,我们主要解决的思路是效验session ID的有效性. <?php if(!isset($_SESSION['user_agent'])){ $_SESSION['user_agent'] = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'].$_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']; } /* 如果用户session ID是伪造 */ elseif ($_SESSION['user_agent'] != $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'] . $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT']) { session_regenerate_id();
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日版宠物情人插曲《Winding Road》歌词

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