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北京饲养金鱼的历史

2008-10-16 22:52:16  编辑来源:互联网  国际版  评论
 
 

本文为【北京饲养金鱼的历史】的汉字拼音对照版显示拼音

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北京饲养金鱼有年头了,据说早在元代京城的太液池等处饲养金鱼,还在崇文门外、天坛北面,有一处京南低洼之处建立了金鱼池。到了明代时京城养金鱼之风为最盛,到清代时这里有了上百个养鱼池,随之也形成了专门饲养金鱼的行业。他们将最好的品种进贡于朝廷,余下的金鱼就上市叫卖,成为那时王公、贵族、大小官员、商贾以及平民百姓在自家庭院中不可缺少的摆设,无论是大宅院及普通小院落里都有鱼缸陈设,养金鱼在京城中蔚然成风。旧时饲养金鱼成为北京一景,以至于京城大街小巷都有挑着俩大木盆的小贩满世界吆喝:“大小噢金鱼来喽!” 崇文门外的金鱼池便产生了许多专门从事繁殖金鱼的专业户,在民国时期这里还曾出现过大的鱼庄。 金鱼成了北京的特产,这些专业饲养繁殖金鱼的人员,他们利用鲫鱼或鲤鱼通过人工培育的方法,使其改变原来的形态,使鱼尾鳍发生变化,变大或分岔,眼睛变得突出、翻眼、或水泡眼,体型也由扁长变为圆形,鱼身的颜色也从金黄色发展成各种人们所希望的颜色。自然环境中没有这些品种,所以培养繁育出这些金鱼特别难伺候,并不易传宗接代。 京城的百姓们称这种为“龙睛鱼”。龙睛鱼是金鱼池一带专业养殖户们所培养的,体长有一尺左右,眼睛大多凸起,所以称为“龙睛鱼”。其颜色有红色、金黄色,也有黑色、蓝色、白色、黄白色和带有各种花斑的。红色龙睛鱼全身皆红,十分耀眼,特别招人喜爱,也有红、白均有的杂色鱼,也有全身整条皆为黑色的被称为墨花睛鱼,它全身漆黑,受到人们的青睐。其它还有蓝色、紫色的龙睛鱼,这些都是十分名贵的品种。其它还有叫望天、虎头、绒球、水泡眼等品种,这些也较为稀有,也有一些体型短粗的龙睛鱼,体态像个圆球,因其体态像鸭蛋,人们叫它蛋鱼。 一般沿街或在胡同里叫卖的小贩们所叫卖的金鱼,体型较小,和鲫鱼鲤鱼体型上差别不是很大,也有尾鳍开始分岔的,但体型都较小,颜色以红色为主,也有红、墨、花白等品种。这些鱼身长不过几寸,售价很便宜,也好饲养、皮实。这种鱼一般都是郊区农民饲养的。一般人家买上几条放在鱼缸里作为摆设或给小孩子玩。也有住户把鱼养在水缸里,被喻为“年年有余”。我家就曾把这种鱼养在水缸里。有一次晚上舀水不小心,把小金鱼和水舀倒在水壶里,放在火上烧,成了水煮鱼。 名贵的金鱼是十分娇贵难养的。京城大的公园如中山公园、北海公园、文化宫后河,都曾有专门的鱼把式伺候它,每天要晒水、换水、打捞鱼虫等活计。养鱼的水要在阳光下暴晒三四天才能用,喂养时要按鱼的大小来喂食。每年金鱼产卵季节,还要在鱼缸中放一种水草或棕,以便金鱼产卵在草上,小鱼孵化后还要按类分盆,以免串种和大鱼误食小鱼。 京城的四合院里,一般都有一缸金鱼点缀在院内。养鱼用的鱼缸有木盆和陶瓦盆。木盆有本色的,也有漆成绿色的;瓦盆一般为深灰色,另外有“大八套”、“大瓦套”、“直边”三种。尤其是瓦盆多年使用,内壁挂满了青苔,这被视为上等好盆,绝没使用金属盆和瓷盆的。鱼缸上还要覆盖铁网,防止鱼儿跃出或遭鸟类等动物的侵害。在暑夏中午时分还要盖上苇席帘,防晒,冬季移入地下室。 原来经营金鱼的金鱼池地区,最为有特色,京城的庙会里都有经营的店铺或摊位,但是经营的品种和数量档次上都比金鱼池差了很多,沿街叫卖的小贩更不用说了。 上个世纪三四十年代,金鱼池的养鱼业开始衰败,随着居民的增多,金鱼池的养鱼池后来也成了臭水沟。要想观赏金鱼只能到中山公园、北海公园或文化宫后河等处去看了,这几家公园里养的金鱼品种多,数量也多,每逢节假日观赏的人很多。 如今人们的生活早已有了翻天覆地的变化,大多数居民都搬进了高楼大厦,但是京城饲养金鱼的民间风俗一直流传了下来,现在仍有不少人家客厅里摆放着硕大的玻璃鱼缸,不但饲养金鱼,有的还养起了价贵不菲的热带鱼。现在有不少宾馆、写字楼的厅堂里,在水景的水池中仍见几尾金鱼在悠然自得地游动,给人的生活带来了生机与活力。
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